Antenna structures and methods thereof for configuring an antenna structure of a communication device in transit

The authors of the patent

G01C21/20 - Instruments for performing navigational calculations
G01R23/02 - Arrangements for measuring frequency, e.g. pulse repetition rateArrangements for measuring period of current or voltage
G01R25/00 - Arrangements for measuring phase angle between a voltage and a current, or between voltages or currents
G01R29/08 - Measuring electromagnetic field characteristics
G01R29/10 - Radiation diagrams of aerials;Antenna testing in general
G01S5/00 - Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
H01Q1/22 - Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
H01Q1/24 - Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
H01Q1/38 - Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella;Particular materials used therewith formed by a conductive layer on an insulating support
H01Q1/50 - Structural association of aerials with earthing switches, lead-in devices or lightning protectors
H01Q1/52 - Means for reducing coupling between aerials; Means for reducing coupling between an aerial and another structure
H01Q3/24 - Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the orientation by switching energy from one active radiating element to another, e.g. for beam switching
H01Q3/34 - Arrangements for changing or varying the orientation or the shape of the directional pattern of the waves radiated from an aerial or aerial system varying the relative phase or relative amplitude of energisation between two or more active radiating elements; varying the distribution of energy across a radiating aperture varying the relativephase between the radiating elements of an array by electrical means
H01Q5/00 - Arrangements for simultaneous operation of aerials on two or more different wavebands, e.g. dual-band or multi-band arrangements
H01Q5/371 - Branching current paths
H01Q5/40 - Imbricated or interleaved structures; Combined or electromagnetically coupled arrangements, e.g. comprising two or more non-connected fed radiating elements
H01Q5/48 - Combinations of two or more dipole type aerials
H01Q9/04 - Resonant aerials
H01Q9/14 - Length of element or elements adjustable
H01Q9/16 - Resonant aerials with feed intermediate between the extremities of the aerial, e.g. centre-fed dipole
H01Q9/28 - Conical, cylindrical, cage, strip, gauze, or like elements having an extended radiating surface; Elements comprising two conical surfaces having collinear axes and adjacent apices and fed by two-conductor transmission lines
H01Q9/30 - Resonant aerials with feed to end of elongated active element, e.g. unipole
H01Q9/40 - Element having extended radiating surface
H01Q9/42 - Resonant aerials with feed to end of elongated active element, e.g. unipole with folded element, the folded parts being spaced apart a small fraction of the operating wavelength
H01Q13/10 - Resonant slot aerials
H01Q21/00 - Aerial arrays or systems
H01Q21/0006 - Particular feeding systems
H01Q21/12 - Parallel arrangements of substantially straight elongated conductive units
H01Q21/28 - Combinations of substantially independent non-interacting aerial units or systems
H01Q21/29 - Combinations of different interacting aerial units for giving a desired directional characteristic
H03J - TUNING RESONANT CIRCUITS; SELECTING RESONANT CIRCUITS
H03J5/02 - Discontinuous tuning; Selecting predetermined frequencies; Selecting frequency bands with or without continuous tuning in one or more of the bands, e.g. push-button tuning, turret tuner with variable tuning element having a number of predetermined settings and adjustable to a desired one of these settings
H03J5/24 - Discontinuous tuning; Selecting predetermined frequencies; Selecting frequency bands with or without continuous tuning in one or more of the bands, e.g. push-button tuning, turret tuner with a number of separate pretuned tuning circuits or separate tuning elements selectively brought into circuit, e.g. for waveband selection, for television channel selection
H04B1/00 - Details of transmission systems, not covered by a single one of groups H04B3/00 to H04B13/00; Details of transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission
H04B1/38 - Transceivers, i.e. devices in which transmitter and receiver form a structural unit and in which at least one part is used for functions of transmitting and receiving
H04B1/401 - Circuits for selecting or indicating operating mode
H04B7/024 - Cooperative use of antennas of several nodes, e.g. in coordinated multipoint or cooperative MIMO [Multiple Input Multiple Output
H04B7/0404 - Diversity systems using a plurality of spaced independent aerials the mobile station comprising multiple antennas (e.g. aspects of uplink diversity)
H04B7/0413 - Multiple input multiple output [MIMO] systems
H04B7/0417 - Feedback systems
H04B7/06 - Diversity systems using a plurality of spaced independent aerials at transmitting station, e.g. time diversity
H04W4/02 - Mobile applicationServices making use of the location of users or terminals, e.g. OMA SUPL, OMA MLP or 3GPP LCS
H04W24/08 - Testing,supervising or monitoringusing real traffic
H04W24/10 - Scheduling measurement reports;Arrangements for measurement reports
H04W28/12 - Flow control between communication endpoints using signaling between network elements
H04W36/08 - Reselecting an access point
H04W36/18 - Performing reselection for specific purposes for allowing seamless reselection, e.g. soft reselection
H04W36/32 - Reselection being triggered by specific parameters used to improve the performance of a single terminal by location or mobility data, e.g. speed data
H04W40/12 - Communication route or path selection, e.g. power-based or shortest path routing based on transmission quality or channel quality
H04W64/00 - Locating users or terminals or network equipmentfor network management purposes, e.g. mobility management
H04W72/04 - Wireless resource allocation
H04W72/08 - Wireless resource allocation where an allocation plan is definedbased on quality criteria
H04W88/06 - Terminal devices adapted for operation in multiple networks or having at least two operational modes, e.g. multi-mode terminals
H04W88/08 - Access point devices

The owners of the patent US9444139:

ACHILLES TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT CO II, INC.

 

A method that incorporates the subject disclosure may include, for example, obtaining, by a first base station comprising a processor, information regarding a trajectory of a communication device. The method can also include determining a location of the communication device relative to a second base station. The method can also include transmitting a recommendation to the communication device regarding adjusting an antenna configuration of the communication device to facilitate data communication services with the second base while maintaining voice communications services with the first base station. Other embodiments are disclosed.

 

 

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
The present application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/896,233 filed on Oct. 28, 2013, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/932,831 filed on Jan. 29, 2014, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/941,888 filed on Feb. 19, 2014, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE
The present disclosure relates generally to antenna structures and methods thereof for configuring an antenna structure of a communication device in transit.
BACKGROUND
It is common for communications devices to have multiple antennas that are packaged close together (e.g., less than a quarter of a wavelength apart) and that can operate simultaneously within the same frequency band. Common examples of such communications devices include portable communications products such as cellular handsets, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking devices or data cards for personal computers (PCs). Many system architectures (such as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)) and standard protocols for mobile wireless communications devices (such as 802.11n for wireless LAN, and 3G and 4G data communications such as 802.16e (WiMAX), HSDPA, 1×EVDO, and LTE) may require multiple antennas operating simultaneously.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Reference will now be made to the accompanying drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, and wherein:
FIG. 1A illustrates an antenna structure with two parallel dipoles;
FIG. 1B illustrates current flow resulting from excitation of one dipole in the antenna structure of FIG. 1A;
FIG. 1C illustrates a model corresponding to the antenna structure of FIG. 1A;
FIG. 1D is a graph illustrating scattering parameters for the FIG. 1C antenna structure;
FIG. 1E is a graph illustrating the current ratios for the FIG. 1C antenna structure;
FIG. 1F is a graph illustrating gain patterns for the FIG. 1C antenna structure;
FIG. 1G is a graph illustrating envelope correlation for the FIG. 1C antenna structure;
FIG. 2A illustrates an antenna structure with two parallel dipoles connected by connecting elements in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 2B illustrates a model corresponding to the antenna structure of FIG. 2A;
FIG. 2C is a graph illustrating scattering parameters for the FIG. 2B antenna structure;
FIG. 2D is a graph illustrating scattering parameters for the FIG. 2B antenna structure with lumped element impedance matching at both ports;
FIG. 2E is a graph illustrating the current ratios for the FIG. 2B antenna structure;
FIG. 2F is a graph illustrating gain patterns for the FIG. 2B antenna structure;
FIG. 2G is a graph illustrating envelope correlation for the FIG. 2B antenna structure;
FIG. 3A illustrates an antenna structure with two parallel dipoles connected by meandered connecting elements in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 3B is a graph showing scattering parameters for the FIG. 3A antenna structure;
FIG. 3C is a graph illustrating current ratios for the FIG. 3A antenna structure;
FIG. 3D is a graph illustrating gain patterns for the FIG. 3A antenna structure;
FIG. 3E is a graph illustrating envelope correlation for the FIG. 3A antenna structure;
FIG. 4 illustrates an antenna structure with a ground or counterpoise in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 5 illustrates a balanced antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 6A illustrates an antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 6B is a graph showing scattering parameters for the FIG. 6A antenna structure for a particular dipole width dimension;
FIG. 6C is a graph showing scattering parameters for the FIG. 6A antenna structure for another dipole width dimension;
FIG. 7 illustrates an antenna structure fabricated on a printed circuit board in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 8A illustrates an antenna structure having dual resonance in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 8B is a graph illustrating scattering parameters for the FIG. 8A antenna structure;
FIG. 9 illustrates a tunable antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate antenna structures having connecting elements positioned at different locations along the length of the antenna elements in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIGS. 10C and 10D are graphs illustrating scattering parameters for the FIGS. 10A and 10B antenna structures, respectively;
FIG. 11 illustrates an antenna structure including connecting elements having switches in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 12 illustrates an antenna structure having a connecting element with a filter coupled thereto in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 13 illustrates an antenna structure having two connecting elements with filters coupled thereto in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 14 illustrates an antenna structure having a tunable connecting element in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 15 illustrates an antenna structure mounted on a PCB assembly in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 16 illustrates another antenna structure mounted on a PCB assembly in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 17 illustrates an alternate antenna structure that can be mounted on a PCB assembly in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 18A illustrates a three mode antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 18B is a graph illustrating the gain patterns for the FIG. 18A antenna structure;
FIG. 19 illustrates an antenna and power amplifier combiner application for an antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure;
FIGS. 20A and 20B illustrate a multimode antenna structure useable, e.g., in a WiMAX USB or ExpressCard/34 device in accordance with one or more further embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIG. 20C illustrates a test assembly used to measure the performance of the antenna of FIGS. 20A and 20B.
FIGS. 20D to 20J illustrate test measurement results for the antenna of FIGS. 20A and 20B.
FIGS. 21A and 21B illustrate a multimode antenna structure useable, e.g., in a WiMAX USB dongle in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIGS. 22A and 22B illustrate a multimode antenna structure useable, e.g., in a WiMAX USB dongle in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIG. 23A illustrates a test assembly used to measure the performance of the antenna of FIGS. 21A and 21B.
FIGS. 23B to 23K illustrate test measurement results for the antenna of FIGS. 21A and 21B.
FIG. 24 is a schematic block diagram of an antenna structure with a beam steering mechanism in accordance with one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIGS. 25A to 25G illustrate test measurement results for the antenna of FIG. 25A.
FIG. 26 illustrates the gain advantage of an antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure as a function of the phase angle difference between feedpoints.
FIG. 27A is a schematic diagram illustrating a simple dual-band branch line monopole antenna structure.
FIG. 27B illustrates current distribution in the FIG. 27A antenna structure.
FIG. 27C is a schematic diagram illustrating a spurline band stop filter.
FIGS. 27D and 27E are test results illustrating frequency rejection in the FIG. 27A antenna structure.
FIG. 28 is a schematic diagram illustrating an antenna structure with a band-rejection slot in accordance with one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIG. 29A illustrates an alternate antenna structure with a band-rejection slot in accordance with one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure.
FIGS. 29B and 29C illustrate test measurement results for the FIG. 29A antenna structure.
FIG. 30 depicts an illustrative embodiment of an antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIG. 31 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a multiband antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIGS. 32A, 32B and 32C illustrate tuning using discrete selection of inductance to select antenna fundamental resonance frequency in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIGS. 33A, 33B and 33C illustrate tuning using discrete selection of inductance to select fundamental resonance frequency where a separate but co-located high band element is shown with feed points F1H and F2H that allows for compatibility with RF transceiver front end designs requiring separate low- and mid- or low- and high-band connections to the antenna in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIGS. 34A, 34B and 34C illustrate tuning and filtering using discrete selection of inductance to select antenna fundamental resonance frequency in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIGS. 35A, 35B and 35C illustrate tuning and filtering using discrete selection of inductance to select fundamental resonance frequency in accordance with one or more embodiments;
FIGS. 36A-36B depict illustrative embodiments of a near field sensor;
FIG. 37 depicts illustrative embodiments for placement of the near field sensor as a probe;
FIG. 38 depicts illustrative embodiments of environmental use cases applied to the antenna structure of FIG. 27;
FIG. 39 depicts illustrative embodiments of return loss and efficiency plots according to the environmental use cases of FIG. 38;
FIG. 40 depicts illustrative embodiments of Smith charts according to the environmental use cases of FIG. 38;
FIG. 41 depicts illustrative embodiments of magnitude and phase plots associated with one of the probes;
FIG. 42 depicts illustrative embodiments of magnitude and phase plots associated with one of the probes;
FIG. 43 depicts illustrative embodiments of phase vs. antenna frequency shift plots of the probes;
FIG. 44 depicts illustrative embodiments of probe power shift vs. antenna radiated power shift plots of the probes;
FIG. 45 depicts illustrative embodiments of an antenna structure and probe placements;
FIG. 46 depicts illustrative embodiments of a free space resonance tuning use a Ltune (a tuning variable);
FIG. 47 depicts illustrative embodiments of efficiency gain by tuning of the antenna structure based on measurements of one of the probes of the antenna structure of FIG. 45;
FIG. 48 depicts illustrative embodiments of efficiency gain by tuning of the antenna structure based on measurements of a different one of the probes of the antenna structure of FIG. 45;
FIG. 49 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a near field sensor;
FIG. 50 depicts an illustrative embodiment of the near field sensor of FIG. 49 on a printed circuit board;
FIG. 51 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a first method that can be applied to the subject disclosure;
FIG. 52 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a near field sensor;
FIG. 53 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a phase detector;
FIG. 54 depict illustrative phase error versus frequency and power level plots resulting from the near field sensor embodiment of FIG. 52;
FIG. 55 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a second method that can be applied to the subject disclosure;
FIG. 56 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a reactance sensor;
FIG. 57 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a third method that can be applied to the subject disclosure;
FIG. 58 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a tunable antenna;
FIG. 59 depicts illustrative embodiments of plots of the tunable antenna of FIG. 58;
FIG. 60 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a fourth method that can be applied to the subject disclosure;
FIG. 61 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a mobile device in communication with a base station;
FIG. 62 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a mobile device intercepting a microcell;
FIG. 63 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a mobile device determining distance and direction relative to two microcells while in communication with a macrocell;
FIG. 64 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a mobile device maintaining a voice call via a macrocell while maintaining data connections with two microcells;
FIG. 65 schematically illustrates a mobile device with trajectory and orientation vectors;
FIG. 66 schematically illustrates a mobile device with a plurality of antenna ports for communicating with a plurality of microcells;
FIG. 67 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a method that can be applied to the subject disclosure;
FIG. 68 schematically illustrates a network system that generates recommendations regarding antenna system adjustments and transmits those adjustments to the mobile device, in accordance with further embodiments of the disclosure;
FIG. 69 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a communication device; and
FIG. 70 is a diagrammatic representation of a machine in the form of a computer system within which a set of instructions, when executed, may cause the machine to perform any one or more of the methods described herein.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The subject disclosure describes, among other things, illustrative embodiments for monitoring changes in an operating frequency of an antenna and adjusting the operating frequency of the antenna to mitigate such changes. Other embodiments are described in the subject disclosure.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for measuring, by a circuit, from a first probe a first magnitude of radiated energy by an antenna, where the first probe is placed near the antenna, obtaining, by the circuit, a second magnitude of a signal supplied to the antenna, comparing, by the circuit, the first and the second magnitudes, detecting, by the circuit, an offset in an operating frequency of the antenna based on a difference between the first and the second magnitudes, and adjusting, by the circuit, the operating frequency of the antenna to mitigate the offset in the operating frequency of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes an antenna structure having a first antenna element for receiving and transmitting radio frequency signals within an operating frequency range, a first aperture tuner for adjusting an operating frequency of the antenna element, and a first near field sensor for sensing radiated energy from the first antenna element. The first near field sensor, the first antenna element, and the first aperture tuner can be coupled to a circuit that performs operations comprising measuring from the first near field sensor a first magnitude of radiated energy by the first antenna element, obtaining a second magnitude of a signal supplied to the first antenna element, comparing the first and the second magnitudes, detecting a change in an operating frequency of the first antenna element based on a difference between the first and the second magnitudes, and directing the first aperture tuner to adjust the operating frequency of the first antenna element to counter the change in the operating frequency of the first antenna element.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a communication device having a near field sensor coupled to the antenna structure, and a circuit coupled to the antenna structure and the near field sensor. The circuit can perform operations including measuring from the near field sensor a first magnitude of radiated energy by the antenna structure, obtaining a second magnitude of a signal supplied to the antenna structure by a transmitter circuit, comparing the first and the second magnitudes, detecting an offset in an operating frequency of the antenna structure based on a difference between the first and the second magnitudes, and adjusting the operating frequency of the antenna structure to mitigate the offset.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for measuring, by a circuit, from a first probe a first phase of radiated energy by an antenna, wherein the first probe is placed near the antenna, measuring, by the circuit, from a second probe a second phase of a transmit signal supplied to the antenna, wherein the second probe is placed in a transmission path of the transmit signal, comparing, by the circuit, the first and the second phases to generate a phase differential, detecting, by the circuit, an offset in an operating frequency of the antenna based on the phase differential, and adjusting, by the circuit, the operating frequency of the antenna to mitigate the offset in the operating frequency of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes an antenna structure including a first antenna element, a first aperture tuner for adjusting an operating frequency of the antenna element, a probe, and a first near field sensor for sensing radiated energy from the first antenna element. The first near field sensor and the first aperture tuner can be coupled to a circuit that performs operations including measuring from the first near field sensor a first phase of radiated energy by the first antenna element, measuring from the probe a second phase of a first signal supplied to the first antenna element, comparing the first and the second phases to generate a first phase differential, detecting a change in an operating frequency of the first antenna element based on the phase differential, and directing the first aperture tuner to adjust the operating frequency of the first antenna element according to the first phase differential.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a communication device having an antenna structure, a near field sensor, a probe, and a circuit coupled to the antenna structure and the near field sensor. The circuit can perform operations including measuring from the near field sensor a first signal representing radiated energy from the antenna structure, measuring from the probe a second signal supplied to the antenna structure, determining a phase differential from a first phase of the first signal and a second phase of the second signal, detecting a frequency offset of the antenna structure based on the phase differential, and adjusting an operating frequency of the antenna structure to mitigate the frequency offset.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for measuring, by a circuit, a change in reactance of an antenna, determining, by the circuit, a frequency offset of the antenna based on a change in an operating frequency of the antenna according to the change in reactance of the antenna, and adjusting, by the circuit, the operating frequency of the antenna to mitigate the frequency offset of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes an antenna structure having a first antenna element, and a sensor coupled to the first antenna element. The sensor can be coupled to a circuit that performs operations including measuring from the sensor a change in a reactance of the antenna, obtaining impedance characteristics of the antenna, determining a change in an operating frequency of the antenna according to the change in reactance of the antenna and the impedance characteristics of the antenna, and adjusting the operating frequency of the antenna to counteract the change in the operating frequency of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a communication device having an antenna structure, a sensor, and a circuit coupled to the sensor. The circuit can perform operations including measuring a change in a reactance of the antenna, determining a frequency offset of the antenna according to the change in reactance of the antenna, and adjusting an operating frequency of the antenna to reduce the frequency offset of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for determining, by a circuit, a magnitude difference between a first signal supplied to an antenna and a second signal radiated by the antenna, determining, by the circuit, a phase difference between the first signal supplied to the antenna and the second signal radiated by the antenna, measuring, by the circuit, a change in reactance of an antenna, detecting, by the circuit, an offset in an operating frequency of the antenna based on one of the magnitude difference, the phase difference, the change in reactance, or any combination thereof, and adjusting, by the circuit, a resonant frequency of the antenna to mitigate the offset in the operating frequency of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes an antenna structure having a first antenna element, a first aperture tuner for adjusting a resonant frequency of the antenna element, a probe, a reactive sensor, and a first near field sensor for sensing radiated energy from the first antenna element. The first near field sensor and the first aperture tuner can be coupled to a circuit that performs operations including measuring from the first near field sensor a first phase and a first magnitude of radiated energy by the first antenna element, measuring from the probe a second phase and a second magnitude of a first signal supplied to the first antenna element, comparing the first and the second phases to generate a phase differential, comparing the first and the second magnitudes to generate a magnitude differential, measuring a change in reactance of the first antenna, detecting a change in an operating frequency of the first antenna element based on one of the phase differential, the magnitude differential, the change in reactance of the antenna, or any combination thereof, and causing the first aperture tuner to adjust the resonant frequency of the first antenna element according to the change in the operating frequency of the first antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a communication device having an antenna structure, a near field sensor, a probe, a reactive sensor, and a circuit coupled to the near field sensor, probe and the reactive sensor. The circuit can perform operations including measuring from the near field sensor a first signal representing radiated energy from the antenna structure, measuring from the probe a second signal supplied to the antenna structure, measuring from the reactive sensor a reactive load of the antenna structure, determining a phase differential from a first phase of the first signal and a second phase of the second signal, determining a magnitude differential from a first magnitude of the first signal and a second magnitude of the second signal, determining a change in reactance of the antenna structure from the reactive load, detecting a frequency offset of the antenna structure based on the phase differential, the magnitude differential, the change in reactance, or any combination thereof, and adjusting an operating frequency of the antenna structure to mitigate the frequency offset.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for adjusting, by a circuit comprising a processor and an antenna, a reactive element of the antenna to reduce or increase an operating bandwidth of the antenna, and tuning, by the circuit, the antenna to a new resonant frequency to accommodate transmitting or receiving RF signals at a desired band of operation, wherein the antenna at the new resonant frequency has the reduced or increased operating bandwidth of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method for adjusting, by a circuit comprising a processor and an antenna, a quality factor of the antenna to reduce or increase an operating bandwidth of the antenna, and tuning, by the circuit, the antenna to a new resonant frequency to accommodate transmitting or receiving RF signals at a desired band of operation, wherein the antenna at the new resonant frequency has the reduced or increased operating bandwidth of the antenna.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a communication device having an antenna structure and a circuit coupled to the antenna structure. The circuit can perform operations including obtaining a desired bandwidth of operation of the antenna structure, adjusting a bandwidth of the antenna to achieve the desired bandwidth of operation of the antenna structure, and tuning the antenna to a new resonant frequency to accommodate transmitting or receiving RF signals at a desired band of operation, wherein the antenna at the new resonant frequency is at least approximately at the desired bandwidth of operation of the antenna structure.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method that comprises obtaining, by a communication device comprising a processor in communication with a first base station, location information associated with a second base station having a service area. The method can also include determining a first vector based on the location information of the second base station, wherein the first vector is directed from a location of the communication device to a point in the service area of the second base station. The method can also include determining a second vector corresponding to a trajectory of the communication device; and adjusting an antenna configuration of the communication device based on the first vector, the second vector or both, to facilitate a transition of communications services provided to the communication device by the first base station to the second base station.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes a method comprising obtaining, by a first base station comprising a processor, information regarding a trajectory of a communication device, and determining a location of the communication device relative to a second base station. The method can also include transmitting a recommendation to the communication device regarding adjusting an antenna configuration of the communication device to facilitate data communication services with the second base while maintaining voice communications services with the first base station.
One embodiment of the subject disclosure includes an antenna structure of a first base station that includes an antenna element for communicating with a communication device via radio frequency signals and a circuit coupled to the antenna element. The circuit can perform operations that include obtaining information regarding a trajectory of the communication device, obtaining information regarding an orientation of the communication device, determining a location of the communication device relative to a second base station, and transmitting antenna configuration instructions to the communication device enabling the communication device to adjust an antenna configuration to facilitate communication services with the second base station.
Antenna structures in accordance with various embodiments of the disclosure are particularly useful in communications devices that require multiple antennas to be packaged close together (e.g., less than a quarter of a wavelength apart), including in devices where more than one antenna is used simultaneously and within the same frequency band or multiple frequency bands in cases where carrier aggregation is required. Common examples of such devices in which the antenna structures can be used include portable communications products such as cellular handsets, PDAs, smart phones, tablets, and wireless networking devices or data cards for PCs or other equipment integrated communication devices such as automobiles, trucks, or other vehicle categories. The antenna structures are also useful with system architectures such as MIMO and standard protocols for mobile wireless communications devices (such as 802.11n for wireless LAN, and 3G and 4G data communications such as 802.16e (WiMAX), HSDPA, 1×EVDO, LTE) that require multiple antennas operating simultaneously. The embodiments of the subject disclosure can be applied to future generations of wireless communication protocols such as 5G.
FIGS. 1A-1G illustrate the operation of an antenna structure 100. FIG. 1A schematically illustrates the antenna structure 100 having two parallel antennas, in particular parallel dipoles 102, 104, of length L. The dipoles 102, 104 are separated by a distance d, and are not connected by any connecting element. The dipoles 102, 104 have a fundamental resonant frequency that corresponds approximately to L=λ/2. Each dipole is connected to an independent transmit/receive system, which can operate at the same frequency. This system connection can have the same characteristic impedance z0 for both antennas, which in this example is 50 ohms.
When one dipole is transmitting a signal, some of the signal being transmitted by the dipole will be coupled directly into the neighboring dipole. The maximum amount of coupling generally occurs near the half-wave resonant frequency of the individual dipole and generally increases as the separation distance d is made smaller. For example, for d<λ/3, the magnitude of coupling is greater than 0.1 or −10 dB, and for d<λ/8, the magnitude of the coupling is greater than −5 dB.
It is desirable to have no coupling (i.e., complete isolation) or to reduce the coupling (i.e., at least reduced isolation) between the antennas. If the coupling is, e.g., −10 dB, 10 percent of the transmit power is lost due to that amount of power being directly coupled into the neighboring antenna. There may also be detrimental system effects such as saturation or desensitization of a receiver connected to the neighboring antenna or degradation of the performance of a transmitter connected to the neighboring antenna. Currents induced on the neighboring antenna distort the gain pattern compared to that generated by an individual dipole. This effect is known to reduce the correlation between the gain patterns produced by the dipoles. Thus, while coupling may provide some pattern diversity, it has detrimental system impacts as described above.
Because of the close coupling, the antennas do not act independently and can be considered an antenna system having two pairs of terminals or ports that correspond to two different gain patterns. Use of either port involves substantially the entire structure including both dipoles. The parasitic excitation of the neighboring dipole enables diversity to be achieved at close dipole spacing, but currents excited on the dipole pass through the source impedance, and therefore manifest mutual coupling between ports.
FIG. 1C illustrates a model dipole pair corresponding to the antenna structure 100 shown in FIG. 1 used for simulations. In this example, the dipoles 102, 104 have a square cross section of 1 mm×1 mm and length (L) of 56 mm. These dimensions yield a center resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz when attached to a 50-ohm source. The free-space wavelength at this frequency is 122 mm. A plot of the scattering parameters S11 and S21 for a separation distance (d) of 10 mm, or approximately λ/12, is shown in FIG. 1D. Due to symmetry and reciprocity, S22=S and S12=S21. For simplicity, only S11 and S21 are shown and discussed. In this configuration, the coupling between dipoles as represented by S21 reaches a maximum of −3.7 dB.
FIG. 1E shows the ratio (identified as “Magnitude I2/I1” in the figure) of the vertical current on dipole 104 of the antenna structure to that on dipole 102 under the condition in which port 106 is excited and port 108 is passively terminated. The frequency at which the ratio of currents (dipole 104/dipole 102) is a maximum corresponds to the frequency of 180 degree phase differential between the dipole currents and is just slightly higher in frequency than the point of maximum coupling shown in FIG. 1D.
FIG. 1F shows azimuthal gain patterns for several frequencies with excitation of port 106. The patterns are not uniformly omni-directional and change with frequency due to the changing magnitude and phase of the coupling. Due to symmetry, the patterns resulting from excitation of port 108 would be the mirror image of those for port 106. Therefore, the more asymmetrical the pattern is from left to right, the more diverse the patterns are in terms of gain magnitude.
Calculation of the correlation coefficient between patterns provides a quantitative characterization of the pattern diversity. FIG. 1G shows the calculated correlation between port 106 and port 108 antenna patterns. The correlation is much lower than is predicted by Clark's model for ideal dipoles. This is due to the differences in the patterns introduced by the mutual coupling.
FIGS. 2A-2F illustrate the operation of an exemplary two port antenna structure 200 in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure. The two port antenna structure 200 includes two closely-spaced resonant antenna elements 202, 204 and provides both low pattern correlation and low coupling between ports 206, 208. FIG. 2A schematically illustrates the two port antenna structure 200. This structure is similar to the antenna structure 100 comprising the pair of dipoles shown in FIG. 1B, but additionally includes horizontal conductive connecting elements 210, 212 between the dipoles on either side of the ports 206, 208. The two ports 206, 208 are located in the same locations as with the FIG. 1 antenna structure. When one port is excited, the combined structure exhibits a resonance similar to that of the unattached pair of dipoles, but with a significant reduction in coupling and an increase in pattern diversity.
An exemplary model of the antenna structure 200 with a 10 mm dipole separation is shown in FIG. 2B. This structure has generally the same geometry as the antenna structure 100 shown in FIG. 1C, but with the addition of the two horizontal connecting elements 210, 212 electrically connecting the antenna elements slightly above and below the ports. This structure shows a strong resonance at the same frequency as unattached dipoles, but with very different scattering parameters as shown in FIG. 2C. There is a deep drop-out in coupling, below −20 dB, and a shift in the input impedance as indicated by S11. In this example, the best impedance match (S11 minimum) does not coincide with the lowest coupling (S21 minimum). A matching network can be used to improve the input impedance match and still achieve very low coupling as shown in FIG. 2D. In this example, a lumped element matching network comprising a series inductor followed by a shunt capacitor was added between each port and the structure.
FIG. 2E shows the ratio (indicated as “Magnitude I2/I1” in the figure) of the current on dipole element 204 to that on dipole element 202 resulting from excitation of port 206. This plot shows that below the resonant frequency, the currents are actually greater on dipole element 204. Near resonance, the currents on dipole element 204 begin to decrease relative to those on dipole element 202 with increasing frequency. A point of low coupling (2.44 GHz in this case) occurs near the frequency where currents on both dipole elements are generally equal in magnitude. At this frequency, the phase of the currents on dipole element 204 lag those of dipole element 202 by approximately 160 degrees.
Unlike the FIG. 1C dipoles without connecting elements, the currents on antenna element 204 of the FIG. 2B combined antenna structure 200 are not forced to pass through the terminal impedance of port 208. Instead a resonant mode is produced where the current flows down antenna element 204, across the connecting element 210, 212, and up antenna element 202 as indicated by the arrows shown on FIG. 2A. (Note that this current flow is representative of one half of the resonant cycle; during the other half, the current directions are reversed). The resonant mode of the combined structure features the following: (1) the currents on antenna element 204 largely bypass port 208, thereby allowing for high isolation between the ports 206, 208, and (2) the magnitude of the currents on both antenna elements 202,204 are approximately equal, which allows for dissimilar and uncorrelated gain patterns as described in further detail below.
Because the magnitude of currents is nearly equal on the antenna elements, a much more directional pattern is produced (as shown on FIG. 2F) than in the case of the FIG. 1C antenna structure 100 with unattached dipoles. When the currents are equal, the condition for nulling the pattern in the x (or phi=0) direction is for the phase of currents on dipole 204 to lag those of dipole 202 by the quantity π−kd (where k=2π/λ, and λ is the effective wavelength). Under this condition, fields propagating in the phi=0 direction from dipole 204 will be 180 degrees out of phase with those of dipole 202, and the combination of the two will therefore have a null in the phi=0 direction.
In the model example of FIG. 2B, d is 10 mm or an effective electrical length of λ/12. In this case, kd equates π/6 or 30 degrees, and so the condition for a directional azimuthal radiation pattern with a null towards phi=0 and maximum gain towards phi=180 is for the current on dipole 204 to lag those on dipole 202 by 150 degrees. At resonance, the currents pass close to this condition (as shown in FIG. 2E), which explains the directionality of the patterns. In the case of the excitation of port 204, the radiation patterns are the mirror opposite of those of FIG. 2F, and maximum gain is in the phi=0 direction. The difference in antenna patterns produced from the two ports has an associated low predicted envelope correlation as shown on FIG. 2G. Thus the combined antenna structure has two ports that are isolated from each other and produce gain patterns of low correlation.
Accordingly, the frequency response of the coupling is dependent on the characteristics of the connecting elements 210, 212, including their impedance and electrical length. In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, the frequency or bandwidth over which a desired amount of isolation can be maintained is controlled by appropriately configuring the connecting elements. One way to configure the cross connection is to change the physical length of the connecting element. An example of this is shown by the multimode antenna structure 300 of FIG. 3A where a meander has been added to the cross connection path of the connecting elements 310, 312. This has the general effect of increasing both the electrical length and the impedance of the connection between the two antenna elements 302, 304. Performance characteristics of this structure including scattering parameters, current ratios, gain patterns, and pattern correlation are shown on FIGS. 3B, 3C, 3D, and 3E, respectively. In this embodiment, the change in physical length has not significantly altered the resonant frequency of the structure, but there is a significant change in S21, with larger bandwidth and a greater minimum value than in structures without the meander. Thus, it is possible to optimize or improve the isolation performance by altering the electrical characteristic of the connecting elements.
Exemplary multimode antenna structures in accordance with various embodiments of the disclosure can be designed to be excited from a ground or counterpoise 402 (as shown by antenna structure 400 in FIG. 4), or as a balanced structure (as shown by antenna structure 500 in FIG. 5). In either case, each antenna structure includes two or more antenna elements (402, 404 in FIG. 4, and 502, 504 in FIG. 5) and one or more electrically conductive connecting elements (406 in FIG. 4, and 506, 508 in FIG. 5). For ease of illustration, only a two-port structure is illustrated in the example diagrams. However, it is possible to extend the structure to include more than two ports in accordance with various embodiments of the disclosure. A signal connection to the antenna structure, or port (418, 412 in FIGS. 4 and 510, 512 in FIG. 5), is provided at each antenna element. The connecting element provides electrical connection between the two antenna elements at the frequency or frequency range of interest. Although the antenna is physically and electrically one structure, its operation can be explained by considering it as two independent antennas. For antenna structures not including a connecting element such as antenna structure 100, port 106 of that structure can be said to be connected to antenna 102, and port 108 can be said to be connected to antenna 104. However, in the case of this combined structure such as antenna structure 400, port 418 can be referred to as being associated with one antenna mode, and port 412 can be referred to as being associated with another antenna mode.
The antenna elements are designed to be resonant at the desired frequency or frequency range of operation. The lowest order resonance occurs when an antenna element has an electrical length of one quarter of a wavelength. Thus, a simple element design is a quarter-wave monopole in the case of an unbalanced configuration. It is also possible to use higher order modes. For example, a structure formed from quarter-wave monopoles also exhibits dual mode antenna performance with high isolation at a frequency of three times the fundamental frequency. Thus, higher order modes may be exploited to create a multiband antenna. Similarly, in a balanced configuration, the antenna elements can be complementary quarter-wave elements as in a half-wave center-fed dipole. However, the antenna structure can also be formed from other types of antenna elements that are resonant at the desired frequency or frequency range. Other possible antenna element configurations include, but are not limited to, helical coils, wideband planar shapes, chip antennas, meandered shapes, loops, and inductively shunted forms such as Planar Inverted-F Antennas (PIFAs).
The antenna elements of an antenna structure in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure need not have the same geometry or be the same type of antenna element. The antenna elements should each have resonance at the desired frequency or frequency range of operation.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, the antenna elements of an antenna structure have the same geometry. This is generally desirable for design simplicity, especially when the antenna performance requirements are the same for connection to either port.
The bandwidth and resonant frequencies of the combined antenna structure can be controlled by the bandwidth and resonance frequencies of the antenna elements. Thus, broader bandwidth elements can be used to produce a broader bandwidth for the modes of the combined structure as illustrated, e.g., in FIGS. 6A, 6B, and 6C. FIG. 6A illustrates a multimode antenna structure 600 including two dipoles 602, 604 connected by connecting elements 606, 608. The dipoles 602, 604 each have a width (W) and a length (L) and are spaced apart by a distance (d). FIG. 6B illustrates the scattering parameters for the structure having exemplary dimensions: W=1 mm, L=57.2 mm, and d=10 mm. FIG. 6C illustrates the scattering parameters for the structure having exemplary dimensions: W=10 mm, L=50.4 mm, and d=10 mm. As shown, increasing W from 1 mm to 10 mm, while keeping the other dimensions generally the same, results in a broader isolation bandwidth and impedance bandwidth for the antenna structure.
It has also been found that increasing the separation between the antenna elements increases the isolation bandwidth and the impedance bandwidth for an antenna structure.
In general, the connecting element is in the high-current region of the combined resonant structure. It may therefore be desirable for the connecting element to have a high conductivity.
The ports are located at the feed points of the antenna elements as they would be if they were operated as separate antennas. Matching elements or structures may be used to match the port impedance to the desired system impedance.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, the multimode antenna structure can be a planar structure incorporated, e.g., into a printed circuit board, as shown as FIG. 7. In this example, the antenna structure 700 includes antenna elements 702, 704 connected by a connecting element 706 at ports 708, 710. The antenna structure is fabricated on a printed circuit board substrate 712. The antenna elements shown in the figure are simple quarter-wave monopoles. However, the antenna elements can be any geometry that yields an equivalent effective electrical length.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, antenna elements with dual resonant frequencies can be used to produce a combined antenna structure with dual resonant frequencies and hence dual operating frequencies. FIG. 8A shows an exemplary model of a multimode dipole structure 800 where the dipole antenna elements 802, 804 are split into two fingers 806, 808 and 810, 812, respectively, of unequal length. The dipole antenna elements have resonant frequencies associated with each the two different finger lengths and accordingly exhibit a dual resonance. Similarly, the multimode antenna structure using dual-resonant dipole arms exhibits two frequency bands where high isolation (or small S21) is obtained as shown in FIG. 8B.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, a multimode antenna structure 900 shown in FIG. 9 is provided having variable length antenna elements 902, 904 forming a tunable antenna. This may be done by changing the effective electrical length of the antenna elements by a controllable device such as an RF switch 906, 908 at each antenna element 902, 904. In this example, the switch may be opened (by operating the controllable device) to create a shorter electrical length (for higher frequency operation) or closed to create a longer electrical length (for lower frequency of operation). The operating frequency band for the antenna structure 900, including the feature of high isolation, can be tuned by tuning both antenna elements in concert. This approach may be used with a variety of methods of changing the effective electrical length of the antenna elements including, e.g., using a controllable dielectric material, loading the antenna elements with a variable capacitor such as a microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) device, varactor, or tunable dielectric capacitor, and switching on or off parasitic elements.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, the connecting element or elements provide an electrical connection between the antenna elements with an electrical length approximately equal to the electrical distance between the elements. Under this condition, and when the connecting elements are attached at the port ends of the antenna elements, the ports are isolated at a frequency near the resonance frequency of the antenna elements. This arrangement can produce nearly perfect isolation at particular frequency.
Alternately, as previously discussed, the electrical length of the connecting element may be increased to expand the bandwidth over which isolation exceeds a particular value. For example, a straight connection between antenna elements may produce a minimum S21 of −25 dB at a particular frequency and the bandwidth for which S21<−10 dB may be 100 MHz. By increasing the electrical length, a new response can be obtained where the minimum S21 is increased to −15 dB but the bandwidth for which S21<−10 dB may be increased to 150 MHz.
Various other multimode antenna structures in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure are possible. For example, the connecting element can have a varied geometry or can be constructed to include components to vary the properties of the antenna structure. These components can include, e.g., passive inductor and capacitor elements, resonator or filter structures, or active components such as phase shifters.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure, the position of the connecting element along the length of the antenna elements can be varied to adjust the properties of the antenna structure. The frequency band over which the ports are isolated can be shifted upward in frequency by moving the point of attachment of the connecting element on the antenna elements away from the ports and towards the distal end of the antenna elements. FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate multimode antenna structures 1000, 1002, respectively, each having a connecting element electrically connected to the antenna elements. In the FIG. 10A antenna structure 1000, the connecting element 1004 is located in the structure such that the gap between the connecting element 1004 and the top edge of the ground plane 1006 is 3 mm. FIG. 10C shows the scattering parameters for the structure showing that high isolation is obtained at a frequency of 1.15 GHz in this configuration. A shunt capacitor/series inductor matching network is used to provide the impedance match at 1.15 GHz. FIG. 10D shows the scattering parameters for the structure 1002 of FIG. 10B, where the gap between the connecting element 1008 and the top edge 1010 of the ground plane is 19 mm. The antenna structure 1002 of FIG. 10B exhibits an operating band with high isolation at approximately 1.50 GHz.
FIG. 11 schematically illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1100 in accordance with one or more further embodiments of the disclosure. The antenna structure 1100 includes two or more connecting elements 1102, 1104, each of which electrically connects the antenna elements 1106, 1108. (For ease of illustration, only two connecting elements are shown in the figure. It should be understood that use of more than two connecting elements is also contemplated.) The connecting elements 1102, 1104 are spaced apart from each other along the antenna elements 1106, 1108. Each of the connecting elements 1102, 1104 includes a switch 1112, 1110. Peak isolation frequencies can be selected by controlling the switches 1110, 1112. For example, a frequency f1 can be selected by closing switch 1110 and opening switch 1112. A different frequency f2 can be selected by closing switch 1112 and opening switch 1110.
FIG. 12 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1200 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the disclosure. The antenna structure 1200 includes a connecting element 1202 having a filter 1204 operatively coupled thereto. The filter 1204 can be a low pass or band pass filter selected such that the connecting element connection between the antenna elements 1206, 1208 is only effective within the desired frequency band, such as the high isolation resonance frequency. At higher frequencies, the structure will function as two separate antenna elements that are not coupled by the electrically conductive connecting element, which is open circuited.
FIG. 13 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1300 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the disclosure. The antenna structure 1300 includes two or more connecting elements 1302, 1304, which include filters 1306, 1308, respectively. (For ease of illustration, only two connecting elements are shown in the figure. It should be understood that use of more than two connecting elements is also contemplated.) In one possible embodiment, the antenna structure 1300 has a low pass filter 1308 on the connecting element 1304 (which is closer to the antenna ports) and a high pass filter 1306 on the connecting element 1302 in order to create an antenna structure with two frequency bands of high isolation, i.e., a dual band structure.
FIG. 14 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1400 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the disclosure. The antenna structure 1400 includes one or more connecting elements 1402 having a tunable element 1406 operatively connected thereto. The antenna structure 1400 also includes antenna elements 1408, 1410. The tunable element 1406 alters the delay or phase of the electrical connection or changes the reactive impedance of the electrical connection. The magnitude of the scattering parameters S21/S12 and a frequency response are affected by the change in electrical delay or impedance and so an antenna structure can be adapted or generally optimized for isolation at specific frequencies using the tunable element 1406.
FIG. 15 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1500 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the disclosure. The multimode antenna structure 1500 can be used, e.g., in a WIMAX USB dongle. The antenna structure 1500 can be configured for operation, e.g., in WiMAX bands from 2300 to 2700 MHz.
The antenna structure 1500 includes two antenna elements 1502, 1504 connected by a conductive connecting element 1506. The antenna elements include slots to increase the electrical length of the elements to obtain the desired operating frequency range. In this example, the antenna structure is optimized for a center frequency of 2350 MHz. The length of the slots can be reduced to obtain higher center frequencies. The antenna structure is mounted on a printed circuit board assembly 1508. A two-component lumped element match is provided at each antenna feed.
The antenna structure 1500 can be manufactured, e.g., by metal stamping. It can be made, e.g., from 0.2 mm thick copper alloy sheet. The antenna structure 1500 includes a pickup feature 1510 on the connecting element at the center of mass of the structure, which can be used in an automated pick-and-place assembly process. The antenna structure is also compatible with surface-mount reflow assembly.
FIG. 16 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1600 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the disclosure. As with antenna structure 1500 of FIG. 15, the antenna structure 1600 can also be used, e.g., in a WIMAX USB dongle. The antenna structure can be configured for operation, e.g., in WiMAX bands from 2300 to 2700 MHz.
The antenna structure 1600 includes two antenna elements 1602, 1604, each comprising a meandered monopole. The length of the meander determines the center frequency. The exemplary design shown in the figure is optimized for a center frequency of 2350 MHz. To obtain higher center frequencies, the length of the meander can be reduced.
A connecting element 1606 electrically connects the antenna elements. A two-component lumped element match is provided at each antenna feed.
The antenna structure can be fabricated, e.g., from copper as a flexible printed circuit (FPC) mounted on a plastic carrier 1608. The antenna structure can be created by the metalized portions of the FPC. The plastic carrier provides mechanical support and facilitates mounting to a PCB assembly 1610. Alternatively, the antenna structure can be formed from sheet-metal.
FIG. 17 illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1700 in accordance with another embodiment of the disclosure. This antenna design can be used, e.g., for USB, Express 34, and Express 54 data card formats. The exemplary antenna structure shown in the figure is designed to operate at frequencies from 2.3 to 6 GHz. The antenna structure can be fabricated, e.g., from sheet-metal or by FPC over a plastic carrier 1702.
FIG. 18A illustrates a multimode antenna structure 1800 in accordance with another embodiment of the disclosure. The antenna structure 1800 comprises a three mode antenna with three ports. In this structure, three monopole antenna elements 1802, 1804, 1806 are connected using a connecting element 1808 comprising a conductive ring that connects neighboring antenna elements. The antenna elements are balanced by a common counterpoise, or sleeve 1810, which is a single hollow conductive cylinder. The antenna has three coaxial cables 1812, 1814, 1816 for connection of the antenna structure to a communications device. The coaxial cables 1812, 1814, 1816 pass through the hollow interior of the sleeve 1810. The antenna assembly may be constructed from a single flexible printed circuit wrapped into a cylinder and may be packaged in a cylindrical plastic enclosure to provide a single antenna assembly that takes the place of three separate antennas. In one exemplary arrangement, the diameter of the cylinder is 10 mm and the overall length of the antenna is 56 mm so as to operate with high isolation between ports at 2.45 GHz. This antenna structure can be used, e.g., with multiple antenna radio systems such as MIMO or 802.11N systems operating in the 2.4 to 2.5 GHz bands. In addition to port to port isolation, each port advantageously produces a different gain pattern as shown on FIG. 18B. While this is one specific example, it is understood that this structure can be scaled to operate at any desired frequency. It is also understood that methods for tuning, manipulating bandwidth, and creating multiband structures described previously in the context of two-port antennas can also apply to this multiport structure.
While the above embodiment is shown as a true cylinder, it is possible to use other arrangements of three antenna elements and connecting elements that produce the same advantages. This includes, but is not limited to, arrangements with straight connections such that the connecting elements form a triangle, or another polygonal geometry. It is also possible to construct a similar structure by similarly connecting three separate dipole elements instead of three monopole elements with a common counterpoise. Also, while symmetric arrangement of antenna elements advantageously produces equivalent performance from each port, e.g., same bandwidth, isolation, impedance matching, it is also possible to arrange the antenna elements asymmetrically or with unequal spacing depending on the application.
FIG. 19 illustrates use of a multimode antenna structure 1900 in a combiner application in accordance with one or more embodiments of the disclosure. As shown in the figure, transmit signals may be applied to both antenna ports of the antenna structure 1900 simultaneously. In this configuration, the multimode antenna can serve as both antenna and power amplifier combiner. The high isolation between antenna ports restricts interaction between the two amplifiers 1902, 1904, which is known to have undesirable effects such as signal distortion and loss of efficiency. Optional impedance matching at 1906 can be provided at the antenna ports.
FIGS. 20A and 20B illustrate a multimode antenna structure 2000 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the subject disclosure. The antenna structure 2000 can also be used, e.g., in a WiMAX USB or ExpressCard/34 device. The antenna structure can be configured for operation, e.g., in WiMAX bands from 2300 to 6000 MHz.
The antenna structure 2000 includes two antenna elements 2001, 2004, each comprising a broad monopole. A connecting element 2002 electrically connects the antenna elements. Slots (or other cut-outs) 2005 are used to improve the input impedance match above 5000 MHz. The exemplary design shown in the figure is optimized to cover frequencies from 2300 to 6000 MHz.
The antenna structure 2000 can be manufactured, e.g., by metal stamping. It can be made, e.g., from 0.2 mm thick copper alloy sheet. The antenna structure 2000 includes a pickup feature 2003 on the connecting element 2002 generally at the center of mass of the structure, which can be used in an automated pick-and-place assembly process. The antenna structure is also compatible with surface-mount reflow assembly. Feed points 2006 of the antenna provide the points of connection to the radio circuitry on a PCB, and also serve as a support for structural mounting of the antenna to the PCB. Additional contact points 2007 provide structural support.
FIG. 20C illustrates a test assembly 2010 used to measure the performance of antenna 2000. The figure also shows the coordinate reference for far-field patterns. Antenna 2000 is mounted on a 30×88 mm PCB 2011 representing an ExpressCard/34 device. The grounded portion of the PCB 2011 is attached to a larger metal sheet 2012 (having dimensions of 165×254 mm in this example) to represent a counterpoise size typical of a notebook computer. Test ports 2014, 2016 on the PCB 2011 are connected to the antenna through 50-ohm striplines.
FIG. 20D shows the VSWR measured at test ports 2014, 2016. FIG. 20E shows the coupling (S21 or S12) measured between the test ports. The VSWR and coupling are advantageously low across the broad range of frequencies, e.g., 2300 to 6000 MHz. FIG. 20F shows the measured radiation efficiency referenced from the test ports 2014 (Port 1), 2016 (Port 2). FIG. 20G shows the calculated correlation between the radiation patterns produced by excitation of test port 2014 (Port 1) versus those produced by excitation of test port 2016 (Port 2). The radiation efficiency is advantageously high while the correlation between patterns is advantageously low at the frequencies of interest. FIG. 20H shows far field gain patterns by excitation of test port 2014 (Port 1) or test port 2016 (Port 2) at a frequency of 2500 MHz. FIGS. 20I and 20J show the same pattern measurements at frequencies of 3500 and 5200 MHz, respectively. The patterns resulting from test port 2014 (Port 1) are different and complementary to those of test port 2016 (Port 2) in the φ=0 or XZ plane and in the θ=90 or XY plane.
FIGS. 21A and 21B illustrate a multimode antenna structure 2100 in accordance with one or more alternate embodiments of the subject disclosure. The antenna structure 2100 can also be used, e.g., in a WiMAX USB dongle. The antenna structure can be configured for operation, e.g., in WiMAX bands from 2300 to 2400 MHz.
The antenna structure 2100 includes two antenna elements 2102, 2104, each comprising a meandered monopole. The length of the meander determines the center frequency. Other tortuous configurations such as, e.g., helical coils and loops, can also be used to provide a desired electrical length. The exemplary design shown in the figure is optimized for a center frequency of 2350 MHz. A connecting element 2106 (shown in FIG. 21B) electrically connects the antenna elements 2102, 2104. A two-component lumped element match is provided at each antenna feed.
The antenna structure can be fabricated, e.g., from copper as a flexible printed circuit (FPC) 2103 mounted on a plastic carrier 2101. The antenna structure can be created by the metalized portions of the FPC 2103. The plastic carrier 2101 provides mounting pins or pips 2107 for attaching the antenna to a PCB assembly (not shown) and pips 2105 for securing the FPC 2103 to the carrier 2101. The metalized portion of 2103 includes exposed portions or pads 2108 for electrically contacting the antenna to the circuitry on the PCB.
To obtain higher center frequencies, the electrical length of the elements 2102, 2104 can be reduced. FIGS. 22A and 22B illustrate a multimode antenna structure 2200, the design of which is optimized for a center frequency of 2600 MHz. The electrical length of the elements 2202, 2204 is shorter than that of elements 2102, 2104 of FIGS. 21A and 21B because metallization at the end of the elements 2202, 2204 has been removed, and the width of the of the elements at feed end has been increased.
FIG. 23A illustrates a test assembly 2300 using antenna 2100 of FIGS. 21A and 21B along with the coordinate reference for far-field patterns. FIG. 23B shows the VSWR measured at test ports 2302 (Port 1), 2304 (Port 2). FIG. 23C shows the coupling (S21 or S12) measured between the test ports 2302 (Port 1), 2304 (Port 2). The VSWR and coupling are advantageously low at the frequencies of interest, e.g., 2300 to 2400 MHz. FIG. 23D shows the measured radiation efficiency referenced from the test ports. FIG. 23E shows the calculated correlation between the radiation patterns produced by excitation of test port 2302 (Port 1) versus those produced by excitation of test port 2304 (Port 2). The radiation efficiency is advantageously high while the correlation between patterns is advantageously low at the frequencies of interest. FIG. 23F shows far field gain patterns by excitation of test port 2302 (Port 1) or test port 2304 (Port 2) at a frequency of 2400 MHz. The patterns resulting from test port 2302 (Port 1) are different and complementary to those of test port 2304 (Port 2) in the φ=0 or XZ plane and in the θ=90 or XY plane.
FIG. 23G shows the VSWR measured at the test ports of assembly 2300 with antenna 2200 in place of antenna 2100. FIG. 23H shows the coupling (S21 or S12) measured between the test ports. The VSWR and coupling are advantageously low at the frequencies of interest, e.g. 2500 to 2700 MHz. FIG. 23I shows the measured radiation efficiency referenced from the test ports. FIG. 23J shows the calculated correlation between the radiation patterns produced by excitation of test port 2302 (Port 1) versus those produced by excitation of test port 2304 (Port 2). The radiation efficiency is advantageously high while the correlation between patterns is advantageously low at the frequencies of interest. FIG. 23K shows far field gain patterns by excitation of test port 2302 (Port 1) or test port 2304 (Port 2) at a frequency of 2600 MHz. The patterns resulting from test port 2302 (Port 1) are different and complementary to those of test port 2304 (Port 2) in the φ=0 or XZ plane and in the θ=90 or XY plane.
One or more further embodiments of the subject disclosure are directed to techniques for beam pattern control for the purpose of null steering or beam pointing. When such techniques are applied to a conventional array antenna (comprising separate antenna elements that are spaced at some fraction of a wavelength), each element of the array antenna is fed with a signal that is a phase shifted version of a reference signal or waveform. For a uniform linear array with equal excitation, the beam pattern produced can be described by the array factor F, which depends on the phase of each individual element and the inter-element element spacing d.
F=A0n=0N-1exp[jn(βdcosθ+α)]
where β=2π/λ, N=Total # of elements, α=phase shift between successive elements, and θ=angle from array axis
By controlling the phase α to a value αi, the maximum value of F can be adjusted to a different direction θi, thereby controlling the direction in which a maximum signal is broadcast or received.
The inter-element spacing in conventional array antennas is often on the order of ¼ wavelength, and the antennas can be closely coupled, having nearly identical polarization. It is advantageous to reduce the coupling between elements, as coupling can lead to several problems in the design and performance of array antennas. For example, problems such as pattern distortion and scan blindness (see Stutzman, Antenna Theory and Design, Wiley 1998, pgs. 122-128 and 135-136, and 466-472) can arise from excessive inter-element coupling, as well as a reduction of the maximum gain attainable for a given number of elements.
Beam pattern control techniques can be advantageously applied to all multimode antenna structures described herein having antenna elements connected by one or more connecting elements, which exhibit high isolation between multiple feedpoints. The phase between ports at the high isolation antenna structure can be used for controlling the antenna pattern. It has been found that a higher peak gain is achievable in given directions when the antenna is used as a simple beam-forming array as a result of the reduced coupling between feedpoints. Accordingly, greater gain can be achieved in selected directions from a high isolation antenna structure in accordance with various embodiments that utilizes phase control of the carrier signals presented to its feed terminals.
In handset applications where the antennas are spaced at much less than ¼ wavelength, mutual coupling effects in conventional antennas reduce the radiation efficiency of the array, and therefore reduce the maximum gain achievable.
By controlling the phase of the carrier signal provided to each feedpoint of a high isolation antenna in accordance with various embodiments, the direction of maximum gain produced by the antenna pattern can be controlled. A gain advantage of, e.g., 3 dB obtained by beam steering is advantageous particularly in portable device applications where the beam pattern is fixed and the device orientation is randomly controlled by the user. As shown, e.g., in the schematic block diagram of FIG. 24, which illustrates a pattern control apparatus 2400 in accordance with various embodiments, a relative phase shift α is applied by a phase shifter 2402 to the RF signals applied to each antenna feed 2404, 2408. The signals are fed to respective antenna ports of antenna structure 2410.
The phase shifter 2402 can comprise standard phase shift components such as, e.g., electrically controlled phase shift devices or standard phase shift networks.
FIGS. 25A-25G provide a comparison of antenna patterns produced by a closely spaced 2-D conventional array of dipole antennas and a 2-D array of high isolation antennas in accordance with various embodiments of the subject disclosure for different phase differences α between two feeds to the antennas. In FIGS. 25A-25G, curves are shown for the antenna patterns at θ=90 degrees. The solid lines in the figures represents the antenna pattern produced by the isolated feed single element antenna in accordance with various embodiments, while the dashed lines represent the antenna pattern produced by two separate monopole conventional antennas separated by a distance equal to the width of the single element isolated feed structure. Therefore, the conventional antenna and the high isolation antenna are of generally equivalent size.
In all cases shown in the figures, the peak gain produced by the high isolation antenna in accordance with various embodiments produces a greater gain margin when compared to the two separate conventional dipoles, while providing azimuthal control of the beam pattern. This behavior makes it possible to use the high isolation antenna in transmit or receive applications where additional gain is needed or desired in a particular direction. The direction can be controlled by adjusting the relative phase between the drivepoint signals. This may be particularly advantageous for portable devices needing to direct energy toward a receive point such as, e.g., a base station. The combined high isolation antenna offers greater advantage when compared to two single conventional antenna elements when phased in a similar fashion.
As shown in FIG. 25A, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater gain in a uniform azimuth pattern (θ=90) for α=0 (zero degrees phase difference).
As shown in FIG. 25B, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater peak gain (at φ=0) with a non-symmetric azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot for α=30 (30 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
As shown in FIG. 25C, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater peak gain (at φ=0) with a shifted azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot for α=60 (60 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
As shown in FIG. 25D, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows even greater peak gain (at φ=0) with a shifted azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot for α=90 (90 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
As shown in FIG. 25E, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater peak gain (at φ=0) with a shifted azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot greater backlobe (at φ=180) for α=120 (120 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
As shown in FIG. 25F, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater peak gain (at φ=0) with a shifted azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot), even greater backlobe (at φ=180) for α=150 (150 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
As shown in FIG. 25G, the combined dipole in accordance with various embodiments shows greater peak gain (at φ=0 & 180) with a double lobed azimuthal pattern (θ=90 plot) for α=180 (180 degrees phase difference between feedpoints).
FIG. 26 illustrates the ideal gain advantage if the combined high isolation antenna in accordance with one or more embodiments over two separate dipoles as a function of the phase angle difference between the feedpoints for a two feedpoint antenna array.
Further embodiments of the subject disclosure are directed to multimode antenna structures that provide increased high isolation between multi-band antenna ports operating in close proximity to each other at a given frequency range. In these embodiments, a band-rejection slot is incorporated in one of the antenna elements of the antenna structure to provide reduced coupling at the frequency to which the slot is tuned.
FIG. 27A schematically illustrates a simple dual-band branch line monopole antenna 2700. The antenna 2700 includes a band-rejection slot 2702, which defines two branch resonators 2704, 2706. The antenna is driven by signal generator 2708. Depending on the frequency at which the antenna 2700 is driven, various current distributions are realized on the two branch resonators 2704, 2706.
The physical dimensions of the slot 2702 are defined by the width Ws and the length Ls as shown in FIG. 27A. When the excitation frequency satisfies the condition of Ls=1o/4, the slot feature becomes resonant. At this point the current distribution is concentrated around the shorted section of the slot, as shown in FIG. 27B.
The currents flowing through the branch resonators 2704, 2706 are approximately equal and oppositely directed along the sides of the slot 2702. This causes the antenna structure 2700 to behave in a similar manner to a spurline band stop filter 2720 (shown schematically in FIG. 27C), which transforms the antenna input impedance down significantly lower than the nominal source impedance. This large impedance mismatch results in a very high VSWR, shown in FIGS. 27D and 27E, and as a result leads to the desired frequency rejection.
This band-rejection slot technique can be applied to an antenna system with two (or more) antennas elements operating in close proximity to each other where one antenna element needs to pass signals of a desired frequency and the other does not. In one or more embodiments, one of the two antenna elements includes a band-rejection slot, and the other does not. FIG. 28 schematically illustrates an antenna structure 2800, which includes a first antenna element 2802, a second antenna element 2804, and a connecting element 2806. The antenna structure 2800 includes ports 2808 and 2810 at antenna elements 2802 and 2804, respectively. In this example, a signal generator drives the antenna structure 2802 at port 2808, while a meter is coupled to the port 2810 to measure current at port 2810. It should be understood, however, that either or both ports can be driven by signal generators. The antenna element 2802 includes a band-rejection slot 2812, which defines two branch resonators 2814, 2816. In this embodiment, the branch resonators comprise the main transmit section of the antenna structure, while the antenna element 2804 comprises a diversity receive portion of the antenna structure.
Due to the large mismatch at the port of the antenna element 2802 with the band-reject slot 2812, the mutual coupling between it and the diversity receive antenna element 2804, which is actually matched at the slot resonant frequency will be quite small and will result in relatively high isolation.
FIG. 29A is a perspective view of a multimode antenna structure 2900 comprising a multi-band diversity receive antenna system that utilizes the band-rejection slot technique in the GPS band in accordance with one or more further embodiments of the subject disclosure. (The GPS band is 1575.42 MHz with 20 MHz bandwidth.) The antenna structure 2900 is formed on a flex film dielectric substrate 2902, which is formed as a layer on a dielectric carrier 2904. The antenna structure 2900 includes a GPS band rejection slot 2906 on the primary transmit antenna element 2908 of the antenna structure 2900. The antenna structure 2900 also includes a diversity receive antenna element 2910, and a connecting element 2912 connecting the diversity receive antenna element 2910 and the primary transmit antenna element 2908. A GPS receiver (not shown) is connected to the diversity receive antenna element 2910. In order to generally minimize the antenna coupling from the primary transmit antenna element 2908 and to generally maximize the diversity antenna radiation efficiency at these frequencies, the primary antenna element 2908 includes the band-rejection slot 2906 and is tuned to an electrical quarter wave length near the center of the GPS band. The diversity receive antenna element 2910 does not contain such a band rejection slot, but comprises a GPS antenna element that is properly matched to the main antenna source impedance so that there will be generally maximum power transfer between it and the GPS receiver. Although both antenna elements 2908, 2910 co-exist in close proximity, the high VSWR due to the slot 2906 at the primary transmit antenna element 2908 reduces the coupling to the primary antenna element source resistance at the frequency to which the slot 2906 is tuned, and therefore provides isolation at the GPS frequency between both antenna elements 2908, 2910. The resultant mismatch between the two antenna elements 2908, 2910 within the GPS band is large enough to decouple the antenna elements in order to meet the isolation requirements for the system design as shown in FIGS. 29B and 29C.
In the antenna structures described herein in accordance with various embodiments of the subject disclosure, the antenna elements and the connecting elements can form a single integrated radiating structure such that a signal fed to either port excites the entire antenna structure to radiate as a whole, rather than separate radiating structures. As such, the techniques described herein provide isolation of the antenna ports without the use of decoupling networks at the antenna feed points.
Other embodiments disclosed herein are directed to an antenna that separates the fundamental (low band) resonance from the high band resonance by using two separate structures, which are connected at the feedpoint—thus accomplishing the goal of achieving a MIMO or Diversity antenna with each feed exhibiting a multiband capability, and whereby each feed is optimally isolated from the opposite feed. By way of a non-limiting illustration, in some implementations, high band frequencies can range from 1710 to 2170 MHz, and low band frequencies can range from 698 to 960 MHz.
In one or more embodiments of the antenna structures described in the subject disclosure, electrical currents flowing through neighboring antenna elements 3002 and 3004 (see FIG. 30) can be configured to be similar in magnitude, such that an antenna mode excited by one antenna port (e.g., Port 1) is approximately electrically isolated from an antenna mode excited by another antenna port (e.g., Port 2) at a given desired signal frequency range. In one embodiment, this can be accomplished by configuring antennas 3002 and 3004 with a connecting element 3006 to enable common and difference mode currents, which when summed together result in some or a substantial amount of isolation between ports 1 and 2. Configuring an antenna structure to control differential and common mode current to cause isolation between any number of antenna ports can be applied to any of the antenna embodiments described herein.
FIG. 31 illustrates an exemplary multiband antenna 3100 in accordance with one or more embodiments. The antenna 3100 can include a low band structure comprising two low band antenna elements 3102, 3104 connected by a connecting element 3106. A fixed or variable reactive element 3126 such as a fixed or variable inductor L is provided in the connecting element 3106 to provide control (reduction) of the mutual coupling between feedpoints for the low band element by varying the electrical length of the connecting element 3106 in accordance with the disclosures of U.S. Pat. No. 7,688,273, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety. Similarly, a connecting element 3116 can be provided between the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114. A fixed or variable reactive element 3136 such as a fixed or variable inductor L can be provided in the connecting element 3116 to provide control (reduction) of the mutual coupling between feedpoints for the low band element by varying the electrical length of the connecting element 3116 in accordance with the disclosures of U.S. Pat. No. 7,688,273.
The high band structure comprising two high band antenna elements 3112, 3114 can be connected to the low band structure at feed points f1, f2. Two filters 3142 and 3144 are provided in the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114 for blocking low band frequencies, thereby isolating the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114 from the low band antenna elements 3102, 3104. The filters 3142 and 3144 can be passive or programmable pass band filters. In the present illustration the filters 3142 and 3144 can represent high pass filters implemented with a capacitor and/or other components to achieve desired high pass filtering characteristics. To achieve similar isolation with the low band structure, the low band antenna elements 3102, 3104 can be configured with filters 3152, 3154 to block high band frequencies, thereby isolating the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114 from the low band antenna elements 3102, 3104. The filters 3152, 3154 can be passive or programmable pass band filters. In the present illustration the filters 3152, 3154 can represent low pass filters implemented with reactive and passive components that achieve desired low pass filtering characteristics.
By having a structure associated with low band resonance and a separate structure associated with high band resonance, the low band structure can be advantageously designed or optimized independently of the high band structure and vice-versa. A further advantage is that the low band or high band structures may separately take on different antenna design realizations, e.g., monopole, loop, Planar Inverted “F” antenna (PIFA), etc. allowing the designer to select the best option for the electrical and mechanical design requirements. In one exemplary embodiment, the low band structure may be a monopole, while the high band structure may be a PIFA.
A separate network is provided for each structure. The low band structure can use a fixed or variable inductive bridge 3126 as an interconnecting element 3106. The high band element is fed from the common feedpoint, but with a high pass network 3142, 3144—the simplest being a series capacitor with low reactance at the high band frequencies and higher reactance at the low band frequencies. In addition, the low band antenna elements 3102, 3104 can be configured with variable reactive components 3122, 3124 to perform aperture tuning which enables shifting of the low band resonance frequency of the low band structure. The reactive components 3122, 3124 can be independently controlled so that the resonance frequency of low band antenna element 3102 can be independently controlled from the low band resonance frequency of low band antenna element 3104. The reactive components 3122, 3124 can be represented by switched inductors which can be aggregated or reduced to vary the electrical length of the low band antenna elements 3102, 3104, respectively.
Similarly, the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114 can be configured with variable reactive components 3132, 3134 to perform aperture tuning which enables shifting of the high band resonance frequency of the high band structure. The reactive components 3132, 3134 can be independently controlled so that the resonance frequency of high band antenna element 3112 can be independently controlled from the high band resonance frequency of high band antenna element 3114. The reactive components 3132, 3134 can also be represented by switched inductors which can be aggregated or reduced to vary the electrical length of the high band antenna elements 3112, 3114, respectively.
The aforementioned structures, enable high band tuning to be performed relatively independent of low band tuning, providing a simpler design process and better performance than antennas not having such separate structures. Other more complex networks may also be used advantageously to separate the interdependence of the high and low band structures still using a common feedpoint for a MIMO branch such as shown in FIG. 31. The method illustrated in FIG. 31 is not limited to 2×2, 2×1 MIMO or 2 feed antennas used for diversity applications, and may be extended to higher branch order MIMO antennas, e.g., 3×3, etc.
A number of factors affect antenna performance in a hand held mobile communication device. While these factors are related, they generally fall into one of three categories; antenna size, mutual coupling between multiple antennas, and device usage models. The size of an antenna is dependent on three criteria; bandwidth of operation, frequency of operation, and required radiation efficiency. Bandwidth requirements have obviously increased as they are driven by FCC frequency allocations in the US and carrier roaming agreements around the world. Different regions use different frequency bands, now with over 40 E-UTRA band designations-many overlapping but requiring world capable wireless devices to typically cover a frequency range from 698 to 2700 MHz.
A simple relationship exists between the bandwidth, size, and radiation efficiency for the fundamental or lowest frequency resonance of a physically small antenna.
Δ f f ( a λ ) 3 η - 1 ( 1 )
Here a is the radius of a sphere containing the antenna and its associated current distribution. Since a is normalized to the operating wavelength, the formula may be interpreted as “fractional bandwidth is proportional to the wavelength normalized modal volume”. The radiation efficiency η is included as a factor on the right side of (1), indicating that greater bandwidth, is achievable by reducing the efficiency. Radio frequency currents exist not only on the antenna element but also on the attached conductive structure or “counterpoise”. For instance, mobile phone antennas in the 698-960 MHz bands use the entire PCB as a radiating structure so that the physical size of the antenna according to (1) is actually much larger than what appears to be the “antenna”. The “antenna” may be considered a resonator that is electromagnetically coupled to the PCB so that it excites currents over the entire conductive structure or chassis. Most smartphones exhibit conductive chassis dimensions of approximately 70×130 mm, which from an electromagnetic modal analysis predicts a fundamental mode near 1 GHz suggesting that performance bandwidth degrades progressively at lower excitation frequencies. The efficiency-bandwidth trade-off is complex requiring E-M simulation tools for accurate prediction. Results indicate that covering 698-960 MHz (Bands 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 5 and 8) with a completely passive antenna with desirable antenna size and geometry becomes difficult without making sacrifices in radiation efficiency.
Factors determining the achievable radiation efficiency are not entirely obvious, as the coupling coefficient between the “antenna” and the chassis; radiative coupling to lossy components on the PCB; dielectric absorption in plastic housing, coupling to co-existing antennas; as well as losses from finite resistance within the “antenna” resonator structure, all play a part. In most cases, the requirements imposed by operators suggest minimum radiation efficiencies of 40-50%, so that meeting a minimum TRP requirement essentially requires tradeoffs between the power amplifier (PA) output and the achievable antenna efficiency. In turn, poor efficiency at the antenna translates to less battery life, as the PA must compensate for the loss.
Prior to concerns over band aggregation, wireless devices operated on one band at a time with need to change when roaming. Consequently, the required instantaneous bandwidth would be considerably less than that required to address worldwide compatibility. Take a 3G example for instance, where operation in band 5 from (824-894 MHz) compared to operation in bands 5 plus 8 (824-960 MHz). Then, add the requirements for band 13 and band 17 and the comparison becomes more dramatic—824-960 vs. 698-960 MHz. This becomes a problematic as legacy phone antennas support pentaband operation but only bands 5 and band 8. Given equation (1) several choices exist. The most obvious would be to increase the antenna system size, (i.e. the antenna and phone chassis footprint) and/or to reduce the radiation efficiency. Since 4G smartphones require 2 antennas, neither approach is necessarily desirable from an industrial design standpoint, although it is possible to cover the 700-2200 MHz bands with a completely passive antenna in a space allocation of 6.5×10×60 mm.
Various alternative antenna configurations are the following: limit the antenna(s) instantaneous bandwidth within current antenna space allocations to allow use of 1 or more antennas without compromising the industrial design (Antenna Supplier motivation); make the antenna(s) smaller to achieve a compact and sleek device with greater functionality by limiting the instantaneous bandwidth with same or improved antenna efficiency (OEM motivation); improve the antenna efficiency, and therefore the network performance by controlling the antenna instantaneous frequency/tuning (Operator motivation); make the antenna agile to adapt to different usage models (OEM/User/Operator motivation); or combinations of the above.
The simplest approach can be to limit the instantaneous operation to a single band to satisfy the protocol requirements for a single region. To satisfy the roaming requirements, the antenna could be made frequency agile on a band-by-band basis. This approach represents the most basic type of “state-tuned” antenna.
Various embodiments disclosed herein are directed to an antenna that separates the fundamental (low band) resonance from the high band resonance by using two separate structures, which are connected at the feedpoint—thus accomplishing the goal of achieving a MIMO or Diversity antenna with each feed exhibiting a multiband capability, and whereby each feed is optimally isolated from the opposite feed. By way of non-limiting example, in some implementations, high band frequencies can range from 1710 to 2700 MHz, and low band frequencies can range from 500 to 960 MHz.
The exemplary embodiments allow for tuning of the first resonance of the antenna to accommodate multiple operational bands depending on a tuning state, and broadband operation on the high bands (e.g., 1710-2170 MHz, or 1710-2700 MHz) independent of the low band tuning state.
Referring to FIG. 32A, an example is shown that is illustrative of single low band-multiple high band aggregation compatibility. The high band radiation efficiency in this case can remain essentially the same independent of the low band tuning state, but the low band resonance frequency is able to be tuned in discrete frequency increments according to the equivalent electrical length, as selected by the series inductance Lvar which is shown in FIG. 32B. The variable inductance can be created using discrete reactive elements such as inductors and a switching mechanism such as an SP4T switch. The configuration as shown yields 3 different inductances depending on which state the switch is in: (state 1) LVAR=L3+L4+L5 (switch connects to pole 1 or 4); (state 2) LVAR=Lpath2∥L3+L4+L5 or approximately L4+L5 (switch connects to pole 2); or (state 3) LVAR=Lpath3∥(L3+L4)+L5 OR approximately L5 (switch connects to pole 3). In this embodiment, Lpath2 and Lpath3 refer to the equivalent inductances of the circuit paths through the switch. Keeping the inductors close to the switch can minimize or otherwise reduce the path inductances such that the discrete inductors are essentially shorted out by the switch.
The antenna incorporates a main structure that has a fundamental resonance at the lowest frequency band. The solution employs a multiband antenna having 3 low band tuning states as shown in FIG. 32B. State 1 includes a low band (fundamental) resonance suited for LTE 700 (698-742 MHz) operation: State 2 includes a low band resonance suited to GSM 850 (824-894 MHz) operation, and state 3 a low band resonance suited to GSM 900 (880-960 MHz).
The high band resonance (1710-2170 MHz) can be reasonably independent of the tuning state for the low band by nature of the separation of the low and high band radiating elements from the feedpoints. The low band tuning can be accomplished by switching different reactive components in between the feedpoint and the radiating structure. The high band operation of the antenna can be governed primarily by the auxiliary radiating section at the terminus of the capacitor opposite the feedpoint. The capacitor functions primarily as a high pass filter to decouple the feedpoint from the high and low bands portions of the antenna. In this way, signals at different operating bands can be directed to the appropriate radiating section of the combined antenna. The high band resonance can be determined in part by the electrical length of the high band portion of the antenna (indicated in the illustration by horizontal conductive segments). In other embodiments, the capacitor may be a highpass, bandpass, or tunable filter. In a similar manner, the path from the feedpoint to the low band radiating portion of the antenna may include a low pass, bandpass or tunable filter.
Tuning can be accomplished using a switching device such one capable of SP4T operation. In one embodiment, a solid state silicon-based FET switch can be used in each leg of the antenna to alter the series inductance presented to the antenna feedpoint, thereby lowering the resonant frequency as a function of the amount of inductance added. Although inductors are used in this embodiment, other reactive components may also be used for the purpose of altering the electrical length of the low band portion of the antenna radiating structure including capacitive elements. The switch may be of various types such as a mechanical MEMS type device, a voltage/current controlled variable device, and so forth. The switch may also be configured with multiple poles and with any throw capability needed to select the number of tuning states required for antenna operation. The number of throws can establish the number of tuning states possible, which in turn is dictated by the number of frequency bands to be supported. While three states are shown in the illustrated embodiment, any number of states can be utilized corresponding to any number of frequency bands or ranges. In one embodiment, a pair of adjustable reactive elements (e.g., fixed inductors coupled with switching mechanisms) can be coupled with corresponding pairs of feedpoints, and the tuning can be performed by settings each of the adjustable reactive elements to the same tuning state among the group of tuning states.
Referring to FIG. 33A, a separate but co-located high band element is shown with feed points F1H and F2H that allows for compatibility with RF transceiver front end designs requiring separate low- and mid- or low- and high-band connections to the antenna. The variable inductance can be created using discrete inductors and a SP4T switch as shown. The configuration as shown yields 3 different inductances depending on which state the switch is in: (state 1) LVAR=L3+L4+L5 (switch connects to pole 1 or 4); (state 2) LVAR=Lpath2∥L3+L4+L5 or approximately L4+L5 (switch connects to pole 2); or (state 3) LVAR=Lpath3∥(L3+L4)+L5 OR approx. L5 (switch connects to pole 3). Lpath2 and Lpath3 refer to the equivalent inductances of the circuit paths through the switch. Keeping the inductors close to the switch minimizes the path inductances such that the discrete inductors are essentially shorted out by the switch.
The exemplary antennas can provide better radiation efficiency and/or smaller size compared to an untuned antenna by nature of the tuning to each band of operation separately. The reactive elements (e.g., inductors and their associated inductance) can establish the electrical length of the low band elements, and therefore can provide for adjusting the low band resonance (tuning). Referring additionally to FIGS. 34A-35B, antenna structures that enable tuning to each band of operation separately while also providing for desired filtering through use of low-pass-filters and high-pass-filters as illustrated. It should be noted the embodiments for aperture tuning shown in FIGS. 32B, 33B, 34B and 35B can replaced with other suitable embodiments such as those shown in FIGS. 32C, 33C, 34C and 35C.
Further, the fundamental mode associated of the antenna low band resonance can be tuned by adjustment of the electrical length of the low band portion of the antenna via reactive elements which may exhibit either inductive or capacitive characteristics. As illustrated in FIG. 32A, discrete inductors are shown in a series connection between the antenna feed points and the radiating element end plates on the each side of the antenna, thereby increasing the equivalent electrical length. The use of separate or discrete components is intended to be illustrative of the principle, but by no means limiting to scope of the subject disclosure. In one or more embodiments, the techniques and/or components of the exemplary embodiments described herein that provide for antenna tuning can be utilized in conjunction with techniques and/or components described with respect to U.S. Pat. No. 7,688,273. In one or more embodiments, the techniques and/or components of the exemplary embodiments described herein that provide for antenna tuning can be utilized in conjunction with techniques and/or components described with respect to U.S. patent application Ser. No. , entitled “Antenna Structures and Methods Thereof”, filed on May 22, 2014.
FIG. 36A depicts an illustrative embodiment of a near field sensor 3620 utilized with other RF components of a communication device 3600. In one embodiment near field sensor 3620 can comprise a first log detector 3622 that receives signals from a directional coupler 3604, a second log detector 3626 that receives signals from a near field probe 3624. In another embodiment, such as shown in FIG. 36B, the near field sensor 3620 can comprise a single log detector 3626 that receives signals from one or more near field probes 3624 selectable by a switch 3625. Instead of relying on a directional coupler 3604 such as shown in FIG. 36A, the controller 3632 of FIG. 36B can be configured to determine a magnitude of a forward feed signal supplied by the transmitter 3602 based on a known state of the transmitter 3602, which can be determined from a look-up table. That is, the controller 3632 may be aware that the transmitter 3602 has been configured to transmit at a desired magnitude as a result of configuring components of the transmitter 3602 such as an amplifier or otherwise. The controller 3632 can utilize a look-up table comprising magnitudes indexed according to known states of the transmitter 3602, or can determine the magnitude of a transmit signal based on an algorithm implemented by the controller 3632. The look-up table can be created by characterizing the transmitter 3602 in a lab or manufacturing setting. Accordingly, the embodiments that follow can be based on either the embodiments of FIG. 36A or 36B.
The near field probe 3624 can be a small trace of metal serving as a miniature antenna that can receive radiated energy from an adaptive antenna 3610 and which can have a very small parasitic effect (if any) on the adaptive antenna 3610, thereby leaving unaffected the original operating characteristics of the adaptive antenna 3610. The near field probe 3624 can be located on a printed circuit board (PCB), a housing assembly component or some other suitable location of the communication device 3600 that enables placement of the near field probe 3624 at a particular perspective of the adaptive antenna 3610. As depicted in FIGS. 36A and 36B, more than on near field probe 3624 can be used at various location of the communication device 3600 as will be described below.
The output signals of the first and second log detectors 3622 and 3626 can be supplied to a difference circuit 3628 that produces a difference signal supplied to an analog to digital converter (A2D) 3630, which in turn supplies a digital value to a controller 3632 for processing. The difference signal represents a difference in magnitude between the signals supplied by the first and second log detectors 3622 and 3626. The signal supplied by the first log detector 3622 can represent a measure of a forward feed signal supplied by an RF transmitter 3602. The difference in magnitude between the forward feed signal and the signal measured by the near field probe 3624 can be used to detect a change in a resonance frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610. In the embodiment of FIG. 36B, the controller 3632 would be supplied a digital value from the A2D 3630 that corresponds only to the magnitude of the near field signal generated by the log detector 3626. The controller 3632 in turn can obtain a digital representation of the magnitude of the forward feed (or transmit) signal supplied by the transmitter 3602 by retrieving a magnitude value from a look-up table based on a known state of the transmitter 3602 or it can obtain it by way of a computational approach that determines the magnitude from the known state of the transmitter 3602. Once the forward feed magnitude is determined, the controller 3632 can determine a difference between the forward feed and near field signal magnitudes using digital signal processing techniques, and thereby detect a change in a resonance frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610.
The adaptive antenna 3610 can be an antenna structure such as any of the embodiments described above. For instance, the adaptive antenna 3610 can be represented by one of the embodiments of FIGS. 31-35, which enable programming of the resonant frequency of the antenna. If the detected change of the resonance frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610 is determined to be undesirable based on the difference signals supplied by the A2D 3630, the adaptive antenna 3610 can be tuned by the controller 3632 by changing the electrical length of the antenna by reconfiguring the structure of the antenna (e.g., adding or removing antenna components), by adding or removing reactive components such as the embodiments of FIGS. 32B, 33B, 34B and 35B, or changing the reactance of a component of the antenna (e.g., a variable capacitor or variable inductor). As the adaptive antenna 3610 is tuned by the controller 3632, the controller 3632 can also be configured to program a matching network 3608 or supply the tuning data of the adaptive antenna 3610 to a separate controller of the matching network to enable programming of the match network to adapt to changes applied to the adaptive antenna 3610 while tuning its resonant frequency. It is noted that the near field sensor 3620 as described herein can be used with other antenna structures not described in the subject disclosure.
What follows is an illustrative algorithm for tuning the adaptive antenna 3610 based on near field RF power measurements. We begin by assuming the adaptive antenna 3610 is tunable with a total of N states. The adaptive antenna 3610 can be set to a particular state, k, based on operating conditions such as a band of operation. The A2D 3630 provides the controller 3632 a relative power measurement, Y, at a specific transmit frequency in use. In one embodiment, an objective is to improve Y. To do this, the k is stepped at time interval, τ, and the response of Y is used to determine if the state should be incremented, decremented, or kept the same. The time τ may be chosen to be longer than a response time of other power control loops used by the communication device 3600 and/or other network operations that may be dependent on the transmit power level from the communication device 3600. With this in mind, a tuning algorithm can be described as follows:
Let k0 be the nominal setting for the state value
Let the value of k alternate between k0, k0+1 and k0−1:
k(nτ)=k0+cos(nπ/2), where n is the number of time increments
For each state, measure the probe response Y(nτ)
Calculate the slope, m=dY/dk
Calculate the running average mbar, over M time intervals,
mi=n−Mnm(nτ)
Compare mbar to a threshold δ to determine whether to change the state
If mbar ≧δ k=k−1
If mbar ≦δ k=k+1
If |mbar|<δ k is unchanged
In an embodiment where multiple near field probes 3624 are used, the above algorithm can be changed so that delta measurements of Y are averaged over time. Averaging delta Y readings can increase the reliability of the measurement. In one embodiment, the controller 3632 can select an individual near field probe 3624 using a programmable multiplexer (S) 3625. The controller 3632 can then apply the above algorithm using only those near field probes 3624 that provide a delta Y with desirable results. This approach can be applied to each near field probe 3624 until one or more near field probes 3624 are identified as providing desirable tuning results of the adaptive antenna 3610. The controller 3632 can then average the delta Y magnitudes measured for each near field probe 3624, or select only one of the identified near field probes 3624 for tuning the adaptive antenna 3610. In a multi-antenna system where the transmitter 3602 can transmit from any one of a plurality of adaptive antennas 3610, the near field sensor 3620 can be configured to choose a near field probe 3624 closest to the antenna used during transmission for performing the above algorithm. In another embodiment, if for a selected near field probe 3624 the near field sensor 3620 is not performing due to unrepresentative information supplied by the selected near field probe 3624 (e.g., a user's finger is changing the performance of the selected near field probe 3624) then the controller 3632 can be adapted to avoid the identified near field probe 3624 and perform averaging from other probes unaffected by the environment effect.
In other embodiments averaging can be performed for more than one near field probe 3624 associated with a single adaptive antenna. In yet another embodiment, multiple near field probes 3624 can be placed on each radiating element of an antenna (high band, mid band, and low band near field probes). In another embodiment, one near field probe can be used per radiating element of an antenna. In yet another embodiment, a pad of an integrated circuit (IC) can be used as a near field probe 3624 of an antenna.
Multiple near field probes 3624 can be used at different locations of the communication device 3600 using a multiplexer 3625 to select between near field probes 3624 to get a measurement of radiated energy of the adaptive antenna 3610 from different perspectives (e.g., bottom, top, sides). FIG. 37 provides a placement illustration of six near field probes 3624 on a printed circuit board. The near field probes 3624 of FIG. 37 are sized to yield −30 dB of coupling with the antenna structure shown. Low band simulations were performed on an antenna structure with a PCB ground of 110 mm×60 mm. FIG. 38 depicts six use cases applied to the circuit board of FIG. 37. The gray sections of each use case represent body tissue or steel. The simulation further assumed a 2 mm air gap between a furthest model element and a log material.
FIG. 39 depicts return loss plots (S11) for steel and body tissue and their respective efficiencies for each use case. Compared with free space, the resonant frequency of the antenna shifts from free space from −150 to +60 MHz. The efficiency changes from −18 to −2 dB. The Smith charts of FIG. 40 depict steel and body tissue plots of all probes for all use cases. FIG. 41 depicts magnitude and phase response of probe 2 which is closest to an end of the antenna. FIG. 42 depicts the magnitude and phase response of probe 4 which is to the left of the antenna. In this latter embodiment, the response is not well behaved, which illustrates that not all probe locations may provide optimal results. FIG. 43 depicts phase shift versus antenna frequency shift plots for probe 2. These plots show that the phase shift experienced at probe 2 correlates with an observed frequency shift. The sensitivity is about 0.24 degrees per MHz. FIG. 44 depicts power shift versus antenna radiated power shift plots for probe 2. These plots show that the magnitude shift experienced at probe 2 correlates worst with an observed power shift. Probe 7 (opposite end of ground) correlates best with the radiated power shift. The sensitivity is about 0.28 degrees per radiated power shift.
FIGS. 45-48 depict simulations for an aperture tuned antenna model. FIG. 45 depicts two embodiments having near field probes placed near and far from an antenna located at one end of a PCB having dimensions of 60 mm×126 mm. The antenna is designed for a low band nominal frequency of 860 MHz. A variable inductor (Ltune) can be changed to shift the resonant frequency of the antenna. The models shown in FIG. 45 can be used to determine how much improvement can be made by changing Ltune in several loading scenarios.
FIG. 46 depicts free space resonance tuning using Ltune. Return loss (S11) is presented in the pots of FIG. 46 as a function of the value of Ltune. The simulations assume in free space a nominal setting of L=5.6 nH at a resonant frequency of 860 MHz. The simulation methodology included running each of the models of FIG. 45 with all of the loading cases shown in FIG. 38. The value of Ltune is then swept for each loading case. A determination is then made of the maximum radiated power at the desired operating frequency (fc) over the sweep of Ltune. The maximum radiated power is then compared based on metrics such as maximizing a magnitude of S21 (power coupled to the near field probe), minimizing a magnitude of S11, and normalizing S21 phase to 0 degrees (the normalized phase is the measured S21 phase minus the reference phase delay at resonance center determined from the free space model or by the actual phase when the antenna is tuned to the desired frequency).
FIG. 47 depicts an efficiency gain by optimization of tuning for the case of the near field probe nearest the antenna in FIG. 45. FIG. 47 shows an improvement in radiated power from 0 to 2.2 dB depending on loading case. It is further observed that an ideal optimization of S21 or S11 results in nearly the same gain as optimizing on radiated power itself. It is also observed that optimizing on S21 phase also works well except in five of the six loading cases. FIG. 48 depicts an efficiency gain by optimization of tuning for the case of the probe opposite the antenna in FIG. 45. FIG. 48 shows again that optimization of S21 or S11 are reliable. However, in this case, optimizing on S21 phase works poorly in the situation where near field probe is far from the antenna.
FIG. 49 depicts an illustrative implementation of a near field sensor. In one embodiment, the near field sensor can comprise a transmission line coupled to a directional coupler, an RF IC (e.g., an Analog Devices AD8302) powered by a battery for measuring amplitude and phase between a forward feed signal supplied by the directional coupler, and a signal supplied by the near field probe. The magnitude and phase measured by the RF IC can be supplied to a controller that performs algorithmic steps as described earlier for detecting a change in a desire frequency of the antenna. RF paths AB and AC can be configured to 90 degrees of path difference for nominal free space, which is the center of the measurement range for phase of the RF IC. RF paths AB and AC can be set to ˜30 dB path loss, the center of the input range being −30 dBm. FIG. 50 depicts a PCB layout of the near field sensor.
It is noted that any of the adaptive antenna embodiments described in the subject disclosure can be applied to multiple MIMO configuration (2×2, 4×4, etc.) or diversity configurations. It is further noted that adaptive antenna embodiments described in the subject disclosure can be applied to multiband antenna structures. In such configurations, the subject disclosure enables support for carrier aggregation of multiple bands for simultaneous transmission or reception in MIMO or diversity configurations, while maintaining at least some isolation between antenna ports.
FIG. 51 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a method 5100 that can be applied to the embodiments of the subject disclosure. The method 5100 can begin at step 5102 where circuitry (such as a log detector) can be used to measure a magnitude of a forward feed signal supplied by a directional coupler coupled to an adaptive antenna by way of a matching network. At step 5104 a near field probe can be used to measure a magnitude of radiated energy from the adaptive antenna. At step 5106 a difference between the magnitude of the forward feed signal and the radiated energy of the antenna can be determined. At step 5110 a determination can be made whether the difference in magnitude results in a change in the operating frequency (fc) of the adaptive antenna. If there is no change (or an insignificant change) in the operating frequency (fc) is detected, method 5100 can be adapted for repeating subsequent iterations of method 5100 beginning from step 5102. If the change in the operating frequency (fc) is considered significant, at step 5112 a frequency offset error can be determined according to the difference in magnitude determined at step 5106.
If the frequency offset error is considered insignificant, method 5100 can be repeated in subsequent iterations beginning from step 5102. If, however, the frequency offset error is considered undesirable (or unacceptable), at step 5114 the adaptive antenna can be tuned by, for example, varying the electrical length of the antenna based on an Ltune value calculated from the difference in magnitude between the forward feed signal and the radiated energy of the antenna. The Ltune value can be used to configure a switched array of inductors such as shown in FIGS. 32B, 33B, 34B and 35B. Alternatively, a tuning value can be calculated from the difference in magnitude between the forward feed signal and the radiated energy of the antenna, which can be used to tune one or more programmable variable reactive elements (such as one or more variable capacitors, one or more variable inductors, or combinations thereof) coupled to the antenna that reconfigure the electrical length of the antenna, and thereby change the operating frequency of the antenna to a desirable frequency.
FIG. 52 depicts another illustrative embodiment of a near field sensor 5210. In this embodiment, the near field sensor 5210 can be configured to perform operations including measuring phase changes in signals radiated by the adaptive antenna 3610 using one or more near field probes 3624, measuring a phase of a forward feed signal using a directional coupler 3604, determining a phase offset between the phase radiated energy emitted by the adaptive antenna 3610 and the phase of the forward feed signal supplied to the adaptive antenna 3610 using a phase detector 5212, and tuning the operating frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610 according to the phase offset using the controller 3632. FIG. 53 depicts a phase detector from Analog Devices™ (AD8302), which can be used in the subject disclosure. The phase detector of FIG. 53 can be used for measuring gain/loss and phase up to a frequency of 2.7 GHz. The phase detector includes dual demodulating log amps with a phase detector input range of −60 dBm to 0 dBm in a 50 Ohm system.
In one embodiment, an inductive, capacitive, and resistive (LRC) model (such as shown by reference 5214) of an unloaded adaptive antenna 3610 can be characterized by an antenna supplier. The LRC characteristics of the adaptive antenna 3610 can be characterized at a time of manufacture of the adaptive antenna 3610. Characterization and/or factory measurements can be stored in a look-up table (or hardcoded) in an algorithm executed by a controller or ASIC design for calculating a frequency offset measurement to perform tuning of the adaptive antenna 3610. A phase calibration measurement can also be performed on a detector chain (directional coupler 3604, phase detector 5212, near field antennas 3624) to remove phase measurement error in the algorithm. Phase calibration may depend on frequency of operation of the adaptive antenna 3610. Accordingly, a phase calibration look-up table can be implemented that is frequency dependent to accommodate changes in calibration based on frequency of operation of the adaptive antenna 3610.
In one embodiment, the impedance of the LRC model 5214 can be described by the following equation:
Z = R + j ω L + 1 j ω C
where ω=2πf and f is frequency. The complex power delivered can be described by the equation:
S = V 2 R + j ω L + 1 j ω C = V 2 R + j ( ω L - 1 ω C ) = R - j ( ω L - 1 ω C ) R 2 + ( ω L - 1 ω C ) 2 * V 2
Based on the above equation, phase of S can be determined according to equation:
= a tan ( 1 ω C - ω L R )
When φ=0, the antenna model 5214 is at resonance.
Solving for ω:
ω 2 L + R * tan * ω - 1 C = 0 ω ( ) = - R * tan + R 2 * tan 2 + 4 L / C 2 L f ( ) = ω ( ) 2 π
From the above equations, the following conditions can be assessed:
    • If foperation (op)=fresonance (r), then φ=0, and ω=1/√{square root over (LC)}=ω0
    • If fopr, then φ>0, and ω<1/√{square root over (LC)}
    • If fop>fr, then φ<0
Based on the above observations, one embodiment of an algorithm for detecting a change in an operating frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610 can comprise the following steps:
    • Phase detector 5212 measures a differential phase φ
    • The controller 3632 can then calculate a measured frequency according to ωmeasured=f(φ)
    • The controller 3632 knows the desired frequency ωtarget
    • The controller 3632 can then calculate a relative scaling error in the measured versus the target frequency ∝offsetmeasuredtarget
    • As noted earlier, a phase calibration measurement can be performed on the detector chain to remove phase measurement error. This can be factored into calculating the ∝offset
    • offset may be integrated or averaged over a time interval or a number of samples to reduce noise or sensitivity to transients shorter than desired time interval
    • Also described earlier, the antenna resonance can be modeled according to ωo=1/√{square root over (LC)}
    • To correct a detected offset in frequency back to a target frequency (ωtarget), the present operating frequency (ωmeasured) can be multiplied by 1/∝offset
    • Removing the offset can be accomplished by tuning L or C of the antenna. As noted earlier, the LC modeling of the antenna can be characterized in a lab setting, during manufacturing, or by other suitable means. An aperture tuner using a switch array of inductors such as shown in FIGS. 32B-35B can be used to tune the adaptive antenna 3610. Tunable capacitive devices can also be used in place of the tunable inductors or combinations thereof.
    • To remove the detected frequency offset, the adaptive antenna 3610 can be tuned such that the product of LC is changed by a factor of ∝2offset to return ωmeasured to ωtarget.
    • The plots of FIG. 54 depict phase error versus frequency and power level of the phase detector (AD8302 shown in FIG. 53). To improve the accuracy of phase detection data provided by the phase detector to the controller, the phase detector can be utilized in a configuration whereby a phase delay from a near field probe is set using a length of delay line such that an RF signal reaching the phase detector input from the near field probe is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with an RF signal reaching another the phase detector input from the directional coupler under nominal conditions, taken as a free space condition. In another embodiment, the delay line can be instead applied to the RF signal supplied by the directional coupler.
FIG. 55 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a method 5500 for frequency offset detection and tuning based on phase measurements. Method 5500 can begin with step 5502 in which a forward feed signal (e.g., a transmit signal supplied by the transmitter 3602) is measured by way of the directional coupler 3604 and supplied to the phase detector 5212. Similarly, at step 5504, the near field probe 3624 can supply a measure of a signal representing radiated energy from the adaptive antenna 3610. As noted in other embodiments, a switch, such as shown in FIG. 52, can be used to select from a plurality of near field probes 3624 to provide measurements of radiated energy from the adaptive antenna 3610 from multiple positions of the probes. The controller 3632 can selectively use multiple measurements from one or more near field probes 3624 to improve the accuracy of the algorithm.
At step 5506, the phase detector 5212 can generate a phase differential based on the phase of the signals measured at steps 5502 and 5504. A digital representation of the phase differential is then supplied by the A2D 3630 to the controller 3632 for calculating a frequency offset (∝offset). The controller 3632 at step 5505 can retrieve phase calibration data from a look-up table based on a target frequency of operation or a measured frequency of operation. In one embodiment the look-up table can further depend on an open loop state of the antenna and use case information such as whether a communication device utilizing the antenna structure of the subject disclosure is being held by a user's hand, whether the communication device is in a position next to a user's ear, and so on. The phase calibration data can be used to adjust calibration errors in the phase differential. To calculate a frequency offset as described above, the controller 3632 can also retrieve from a look-up table at step 5507 an LRC model of the adaptive antenna 3610, which may also be frequency dependent. The calibration data and the LRC model can be stored in a memory of a communication device that integrates the embodiments of FIG. 52. At step 5510, the controller 3632 can determine whether a change in frequency from a desired target frequency has occurred. A change in frequency can be determined when, for example, ∝offset is greater than or less than unity (i.e., 1).
At step 5512, the controller 3632 can be configured to make a determination whether the frequency offset is significant enough to warrant retuning of the measured operating frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610. To avoid excessive retuning of the adaptive antenna 3610, the controller 3632 can be configured to compare ∝offset to a range of thresholds. For example, when ∝offset>1, ∝offset can be compared to a first threshold. The first threshold can represent an acceptable frequency overshoot range of the frequency measured (wmeasured) above the target frequency (wtarget). Similarly, when ∝offset<1, ∝offset can be compared to a second threshold. The second threshold can represent an acceptable frequency undershoot range of the frequency measured (wmeasured) below the target frequency (wtarget). The first and second thresholds can be based on specifications provided by a network provider. Thus, when the frequency measured exceeds the first threshold or is below the second threshold, the controller 3632 can proceed to step 5514 where it retunes the adaptive antenna 3610 as previously described in the subject disclosure to bring ∝offset closer to unity.
It is further noted that more than two thresholds (e.g., two thresholds for detecting large offsets and two additional thresholds for detecting smaller offsets) can be used to enable a determination when a coarse tuning versus a fine tuning of the adaptive antenna 3610 is required.
In another embodiment of the subject disclosure, method 5500 of FIG. 55 can be adapted to use a first look-up table that maps a detected phase output voltage to a frequency shift, and a second lookup table that maps antenna tuning states to the frequency shift determined from the first look-up table. Accordingly, when the controller 3632 reads a voltage signal from the phase detector 5212 in digital format provided by the A2D 3630, the controller 3632 proceeds to look up a frequency shift in the first look-up table, then utilizes the frequency shift to index through the second look-up table to obtain one or more state increments to shift the frequency of the antenna to a desired state. The one or more state increments can represent an adjustment of the electrical length of the adaptive antenna 3610 utilizing an array of selectable inductors such as shown in FIGS. 32B-35B.
In also noted that the methods depicted in FIGS. 51 and 55 can be combined to further enhance frequency offset detection and retuning. For example, in one embodiment delta averages of Y can be compared to delta averages of ∝offset, and such comparisons can be used to estimate a frequency offset. In another embodiment, delta averages of Y can be correlated to expected delta averages of ∝offset, which can be recorded in a look-up table. Similarly, delta averages of ∝offset can be correlated to expected delta averages of Y, which can be recorded in a look-up table. The look-up tables can in turn be used for validation of a frequency offset calculation. Other suitable techniques can be used to compare the results of one algorithm against the other for validation of measurements.
RF magnitude detection (embodiment of FIG. 51) and RF phase detection (embodiment of FIG. 54) can be used together to provide improved antenna frequency tuning. The RF magnitude detection provides a direct measurement of radiated power. Phase detection yields an instantaneous estimate of the amount of frequency error, and hence the amount of correction needed. In one embodiment the frequency error estimate determined from phase detection may be used to calculate a specific amount of frequency shift and direction for the next iterative step in the magnitude detection algorithm. Thus phase detection algorithm of FIG. 54 can enable the RF magnitude algorithm of FIG. 51 to close in on a desired frequency of operation.
In another embodiment, an iterative algorithm for mitigating a frequency offset can utilize both magnitude and phase readings as described in the subject disclosure to determine an error estimate. The error estimate can be based on a weighted combination of both magnitude (mbar) and phase (∝offset) offsets, with the algorithm seeking to reduce the combined error estimate instead of relying on either the magnitude or phase error estimates individually.
FIG. 56 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a system 5600 having a reactance sensor 5608 for measuring a reactive load applied to the antenna 3610. The reactive sensor 5608 can be used, for example, to measure a load capacitance of the antenna 3610 utilizing a delta-sigma capacitance meter or other suitable circuitry operating at a sampling frequency fs or at some band of frequencies separate from the operating frequency band of the RF and/or antenna system. The reactive sensor 5608 in turn supplies the controller 3632 a digital signal representing the measured load capacitance of the antenna 3610. An RF choke 5606 can be used to restrict the flow of RF signals to the reactive sensor 5608 except RF signals at or below the sampling frequency fs of the reactive sensor 5608. The separation of the RF front end (i.e., 3601 and/or 3602) from the reactive sensor 5608 may also be accomplished with filters or other signal separation means, including a diplexer, a duplexer, a multiplexer or other suitable circuitry. In this illustration, the carrier frequency fc of signals received by the receiver 3601 from the antenna 3610 or supplied by the transmitter 3602 to the antenna 3610 are at a much higher frequency than the sampling frequency fs of the reactive sensor 5608, thereby enabling the RF choke 5606 to prevent such signals from being leaked into the reactive sensor 5608. A transient suppressor 5604 can be used for ESD protection, and can utilize a diode circuit to prevent the sampling signal of the reactive sensor 5608 from being dissipated to ground. It should be noted that loading conditions contributed by the RF choke 5606, the transient suppressor 5604 and the matching network 3608 any other circuits of system 5600 can be pre-measured at various frequencies in a controlled setting (e.g., a lab and/or manufacturing) based on known loading conditions of the antenna 3610. Such loading measurements can be tabulated in a look-up table at various operating frequencies and utilized to improve the accuracy of capacitive load readings of the antenna 3610 by removing known errors from measurements made by the reactive sensor 5608.
In one embodiment, frequency tuning using the system 5600 of FIG. 56 can be performed by measuring a change in reactance (e.g., capacitance) of the adaptive antenna 3610, converting the measured change in reactance to a frequency offset, and tuning an operating frequency of the adaptive antenna 3610 according to the frequency offset. An LRC model of an unloaded antenna 5602 such as shown in FIG. 56 (without ZIN and CL) can be characterized in a lab setting, during manufacturing, or by an antenna supplier. Characterizations of the LRC model at various frequencies can be stored in a look-up table (or hardcoded) when performing frequency tuning as will be described below.
In one embodiment, the impedance of the LRC model 5602 can be described by the following equation, which was earlier described:
Z = R + j ω L + 1 j ω C
where ω=2πf and f is frequency, R=Rrad+Rinternal (radiation resistance+resistance of antenna), L is the equivalent inductance of the antenna, and C is the equivalent capacitance of the antenna 3610. The above equation can be rewritten as:
Z = j [ ω L - 1 ω C ] + R
Resonance occurs when ωL=1/ωC or ω2=1/LC. It follows therefore that the resonance frequency fr=½π√{square root over (LC)}.
Any external loading of the adaptive antenna 3610 may be assumed to be (at first order) a parallel capacitance CL. The load capacitance may also consist of other reactive components associated with the circuit implementation, as indicated previously. The resonance frequency can thus be determined from fr=½π√{square root over (LCT)}, where CT=C+CL. By measuring CL, and knowing LRC values from a look-up table, a change in resonant frequency can be calculated.
Considering the impedance ZIN 5603 of the matching circuit 3608, which may be programmable, the impedance of the 5602 model can be further characterized as impedance ZA, which can represent an impedance looking in from a voltage source of the LRC model 5602. ZA can be described by the following equations:
Z A = r + j b + j ω L - j ω * [ 1 C + CL ] + R Z A = r + R + j * ( b + ω L - 1 ω [ 1 C + CL ] )
where ZIN=r+jb, and where r is the real impedance and b is the reactance of the matching network 3608 (whether fixed or programmable), each which can be known to the controller 3632. Resonance occurs when the imaginary quantity becomes zero, as described by the following equation:
b + ω L = 1 ω [ 1 C + CL ]
which can be rewritten in quadratic form as:
ω 2 + b / L * ω - 1 L [ 1 C + CL ] = 0
The variable co can be solved for with the quadratic formula based on known values for r, b, L, C and CL (which can be measured by the reactive sensor 5606 as shown in FIG. 56). Once ω is solved, the new resonant frequency can be determined from fr′=ω/2π, which can be compared to an expected resonant frequency (i.e., expected operating frequency of the antenna 3610) to determine a frequency offset. Knowing the frequency offset, the controller 3632 can be programmed to adjust the resonant frequency of the antenna by programming an aperture tuner of the antenna 3610 (such those shown in FIGS. 32B-32C, 33B-33C, 34B-34C, and 35B-35C). It is noted that the reactive sensor 5608 can also be used to measure other parameters such as inductance, or admittance.
FIG. 57 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a third method 5700 that can be applied to the subject disclosure. Method 5700 can begin at step 5702 where the reactive sensor 5608 measures a load capacitance of the antenna 3610. As noted earlier, the controller 3632 can retrieve capacitive offset values from a look-up table based on a known operating frequency of the system 5600 to remove sensing errors when measuring the capacitive load of the antenna 3610. Based on known tabulated values of the LRC model of the antenna 3610 at different operating frequencies, the controller 3632 can retrieve such values based on an expected operating frequency to determine at step 5706 a frequency offset of the antenna 3610 (as described above) according to the load capacitance measured at step 5702. If a frequency offset is detected at step 5708, the controller 3632 can proceed to step 5710 to assess if the detected error is nominal and thus can be ignored, or if it significant enough to warrant a retuning of the resonant frequency of the antenna 3610 at step 5712 utilizing the aperture tuning techniques described in the subject disclosure. The error determination can be based on one or more thresholds applied to step 5512.
The methods depicted in FIGS. 51, 55 and 57 can be combined to improve the accuracy of detecting a frequency offset of the antenna 3610 and mitigating such offsets through aperture tuning. For example, in one embodiment delta averages of Y determined by method 5100 can be compared to delta averages of ∝offset determined by method 5500, and to delta averages of frequency offsets determined by method 5700 (which will be referred to as φoffset) and such comparisons can be used to estimate a collective frequency offset. In another embodiment, delta averages of Y can be correlated to expected delta averages of ∝offset, which can be recorded in a look-up table. Similarly, delta averages of ∝offset can be correlated to expected delta averages of Y, which can be recorded in a look-up table. Similarly, delta averages of ∝offset can be correlated to expected delta averages of φoffset, which can be recorded in a look-up table. Similarly, delta averages of φoffset can be correlated to expected delta averages of ∝offset, which can be recorded in a look-up table. Additional combinations of these look-up tables can be created to account for all possible combinations or a subset thereof. The collection of look-up tables in turn can be used for validation of a frequency offset calculation by the controller 3632 by any one of the algorithms described in the subject disclosure. Other suitable techniques can be used to compare the results of one algorithm against another for validation of measurements.
In one embodiment, an antenna can have a tunable quality factor (Q) which can proportionally vary a bandwidth of the antenna and can change the resonance of the antenna. A tunable capacitance (C) and/or tunable inductance (L) can be used to vary Q factor of the antenna. A closed loop tunable resonance technique can be used to compensate for a change in bandwidth (BW) of the antenna. Variable BW can be used for improving co-channel interference or intermodulation distortion (IMD). Resonance tuning can also be used for band and/or channel selectivity depending on how narrow the BW of the antenna is. An antenna can be tuned to a narrower BW when carrier aggregation (CA) is not needed. A narrower BW can also be used to alleviate front end filter design.
FIG. 58 depicts an illustrative embodiment of an antenna 5802 having a tunable bandwidth. The antenna 5802 can be located on an end of a 60×120 mm ground plane. The antenna 5802 can include a variable inductor (L1) and variable capacitor (C1). L1 and C1 can be a part of a total equivalent L and C of the antenna 5802. C1 and/or L1 can be located at an end of the antenna 5802 near a feed point. Changes in L1 and C1 can alter the resonance frequency of the antenna 5802, its resonance bandwidth (BW), and input impedance. Accordingly, a closed loop resonance technique such as described in the subject disclosure, such as by way of illustration the methods of FIGS. 51, 55, and/or 57, can be used to mitigate offsets caused in the resonance frequency of the antenna 5802 due to bandwidth tuning. It is noted that other configurations of the antenna 5802 that are suitable for tuning a resonance bandwidth can be applied to the subject disclosure.
A process for tuning a variable bandwidth antenna 5802 such as illustrated in FIG. 58 can be described as follows. The antenna 5802 can be modeled as a single resonance antenna based on a series RLC—similar to the model 5602 shown in FIG. 56. The inductance (L) of the antenna can be determined by a high current region of the antenna while the capacitance (C) of the antenna can be determined by a high potential region of the antenna. The resistance (R) is a combination of the radiation resistance and an equivalent loss resistance. For a quarter-wave type antenna the inductive portion can be near the feed point while the capacitance portion can near an end of the antenna 5802. The resonant frequency of the antenna 5802 can be expressed as:
f r = 1 2 π LC
fr can be raised or lowered by decreasing or increasing L or C or both. The quality factor (Q) of the antenna can be expressed as a function of RLC:
Q = 1 R L C
The fractional bandwidth BW=Δf/f of the antenna 5802 can be approximated to the inverse of Q: BW=1/Q. Q changes proportionately to L and inversely with C. Hence, the bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can be varied by changing the L/C ratio while fr can be varied by changing the LC product. By using a variable inductor (L) and variable capacitor (C) coupled to the antenna 5802, the resonance bandwidth (L/C ratio) and the resonance frequency (LC product) of the antenna 5802 can be tuned. FIG. 59 depicts plots resulting from tuning a bandwidth of the antenna 5802 of FIG. 58.
It is noted that the embodiment of antenna 5802 (and variants thereof that support tuning a resonance bandwidth of an antenna) can be used by more than one antenna of a communication device in a MIMO or diversity configuration or other suitable configurations. Additionally, the embodiment of antenna 5802 can be combined with any of the embodiments of the subject disclosure for improving isolation between antennas, among other desirable improvements.
In one embodiment, antenna 5802 can be tuned to a narrower bandwidth according to the aforementioned embodiments when interband carrier aggregation (CA) is not required. Tuning the antenna 5802 to a narrower bandwidth can increase isolation of the antenna 5802 from other antennas operating outside the passband of antenna 5802, and/or can increase isolation of the antenna 5802 from other antennas that are transmitting simultaneously in an interband CA configuration. By tuning the antenna 5802 to a narrower bandwidth, the narrower bandwidth can help reduce desensitization due to transmissions outside the passband of the antenna—from external or internal transmissions, the latter being due to interband CA or noise sources.
In the case of noise sources, narrowing the resonance bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can also potentially reduce total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) thereby improving a performance of the antenna 5802. Narrowing the bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can also help reduce intermodulation distortion (IMD) and third order intercept point (IIP3) issues. In another embodiment, when intraband CA is required the bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can be increased for simultaneous use of multiple channels within a band.
When signals are being transmitted by the antenna 5802, adjusting the bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can also reduce harmonics and IMD byproducts due to mixing. Additionally, spurious radiation outside a desired channel may be mitigated if the antenna passband is sufficiently narrow.
FIG. 60 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a method 6000 that can be applied to the subject disclosure. Method 6000 can begin at step 6002 where a communication device utilizing one or more instances of the antenna 5802 of FIG. 58 determines a need to adjust a bandwidth of operation of the antenna 5802. The need to adjust the resonance bandwidth can represent a need to increase or decrease the resonance bandwidth of the antenna 5802. For example, the communication device can be configured to determine that interband carrier aggregation is not required, and thereby proceed to reduce the bandwidth of the antenna 5802 to improve isolation and/or other issues discussed above. Alternatively, the communication device can be configured to determine that intraband carrier aggregation is required, and proceed to increase the resonance bandwidth of the antenna 5802 to enable the communication device to simultaneously use multiple channels for communication purposes.
At step 6004, the communication device can obtain from a look-up table the LRC model parameters of the antenna 5802, which it can use for calculating with the above equations parameters for tuning the variable inductance (L), variable capacitance (C), or both to adjust the resonance bandwidth of the antenna 5802. In step 6006, the communication device can also determine a desired bandwidth for tuning the antenna 5802. The desired bandwidth can be determined based on whether interband CA is or is not being used, intraband CA is being used, or any other circumstance where adjusting the resonance bandwidth of the antenna 5802 can improve the performance of the antenna 5802. To circumvent the need for calculations by the communication device based on the above equations, the communication device can utilize a look-up table that cross-references a desired resonance bandwidth with recommended tuning values for the variable inductor (L) of antenna 5802, variable capacitor (C) of antenna 5802, or both.
In addition, the look-up table can include recommended resonance frequency tuning instructions to reduce a change in the resonance frequency of the antenna 5802 resulting from tuning the resonance fractional bandwidth of the antenna 5802. Resonance tuning instructions can include among other things parameters for adjusting an electrical length of the antenna 5802, parameters adding or remove reactance from the antenna 5802 such as shown in FIGS. 32B, 32C, 33B, 33C, 34B, 34C, 35B and/or 35C, or any other suitable technique described in the subject disclosure for tuning the resonant frequency of the antenna 5802.
Once the communication device has obtained tuning parameters for adjusting the resonance fractional bandwidth of the antenna 5802, the communication device can proceed to step 6008 to tune the variable inductor (L), variable capacitor (C), or both illustrated in FIG. 58. The antenna 5802 can be combined with any of the embodiments of the subject disclosure (e.g., FIGS. 36A, 36B, 49, 52, 56) for detecting and mitigating an offset in a desired resonance frequency of the antenna. Accordingly, any offset in the resonant frequency of the antenna 5802 caused by the tuning of the resonance bandwidth can be mitigated by steps 6010, 6012, and 6014 using the techniques described above for determining and adjusting a magnitude difference between a first signal supplied to the antenna 5802 and a second signal radiated by the antenna 5802, a phase difference between the first signal supplied to the antenna 5802 and the second signal radiated by the antenna 5802, a change in reactance of the antenna 5802, or any combination thereof.
It is noted that the embodiments of the subject disclosure can be applied to mobile or stationary communication devices. Mobile communication devices can include without limitation cellular phones, smartphones, tablets, laptop computers, and so on. Stationary communication devices can include base stations such as a cellular base station, a femto cell, a wireless fidelity access point, a small cell, a micro cell, and so on.
FIG. 61 schematically illustrates an arrangement 6100 according to an embodiment of the disclosure, in which a mobile communication device 6101 receives communications services from a base station 6110 that has a service area 6120. In this embodiment, mobile communication device 6101 incorporates multiple adaptable antennas (including frequency-adaptable antennas, polarity-adaptable antennas, directivity adaptable antennas, and so on) for communicating on a variety of frequency bands, and is provided with software for supporting a variety of communications protocols.
A global positioning system (GPS) on the mobile communication device 6101 can establish a current location of the device and its current direction or trajectory of travel (vector D). Based on the GPS data, the mobile communication device 6101 can also determine the relative location of another base station 6111 having a service area 6121, before the mobile communication device 6101 enters area 6121. Based on the location of base station 6111, the mobile communication device 6101 can also determine the operating frequency and other operating parameters of base station 6111. In this example, base station 6110 is a macro cell tower operating on a relatively low frequency band such as GSM (Global System for Mobile) Band 5, while base station 6111 is a microcell operating on a higher frequency band such as LTE (Long Term Evolution) Band 7.
The mobile communication device 6101 uses the GPS data to determine the distance and direction to the nearest edge of service area 6121; this direction is given by vector V as shown in arrangement 6200 of FIG. 62. Based on a comparison of vectors D and V, the mobile communication device 6101 can determine whether it will intercept the microcell (that is, enter service area 6121). If so, the mobile communication device 6101 adjusts its antenna configuration to prepare for a handoff of communication services from the current base station 6110 to the new base station 6111 or prepare to add communication services (e.g., data services) when initiating communications with the new base station 6111. The mobile communication device 6101 proceeds to improve performance of its antenna system for the new base station 6111. In this embodiment, the mobile communication device 6101 can tune an operating frequency of one or more of its antennas, change an antenna's polarization, change an antenna's electrical length, tune an antenna bandwidth, tune an antenna directivity (such as by way of beamforming techniques described in the embodiments of FIGS. 24 through 25G), or use any combination of these methods.
FIG. 63 schematically illustrates an arrangement 6300 according to another embodiment of the disclosure, in which mobile device 6101 can connect to microcell 6321 with base station 6311, in addition to base station 6111. In this example, microcell 6321 is a local WiFi hotspot with an operating frequency within the 2400 MHz WiFi band.
Mobile communication device 6101 can maintain simultaneous communications with both the microcell and the WiFi hotspot in arrangement 6300, according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The mobile communication device 6101 determines the distance and direction to the nearest edge of areas 6121 and 6321 (vectors V1 and V2 respectively). The mobile communication device 6101 can configure a first antenna for initiating a first data communication session with base station 6111 according to vector V1 and a second antenna for initiating a second data communication session with base station 3111 according to vector V2. When optimizing a performance of the first antenna which in turn reduces a performance of the second antenna, or vice-versa, the mobile communication device 6101 can configure the first and second antennas so that neither antenna is configured for optimal performance. The mobile communication device 6101 can be configured instead to achieve a performance for each antenna that is at or above a threshold performance set independently for each antenna that is deemed a minimal acceptable performance for each antenna and that is deemed sufficient for providing desirable data and/or voice services to an end user of the communication device.
Accordingly, such performance thresholds can be chosen as a compromise in performance between antennas that are known to have a functional dependency when the antennas are in simultaneous use. It is further noted that a third threshold can also be used for base station 6110 when an antenna assigned to base station 6110 is functionally dependent on the configurations of the other antennas being used for base stations 6111 and 6311, respectively. In this instance, the first, second, and third thresholds serve as a compromise in performance of the three antennas. When the simultaneous use of multiple antennas for base stations 6110, 6111 and 6311 are not functionally dependent on each other, then the mobile communication device 6101 can configure each antenna for optimal use according to vectors V1 and V2, respectively. It will be appreciated that in the aforementioned embodiments, the mobile communication device 6101 may communicate with different base stations simultaneously using different protocols (e.g., LTE vs. 802.11).
In a further embodiment 6400 shown in FIG. 64, the mobile communication device 6101 maintains communication 6410 with the macro cell base station 6110, while simultaneously communicating with microcell 6121 and hotspot 6321. For example, the mobile communication device 6101 may be streaming a video program while engaging in a voice call. Under the circumstances shown in FIG. 64, it may be possible that highest desirable quality of service (QOS) is obtained by maintaining the voice call via the macro cell 6120 (e.g., on GSM Band 5), while data connections are shared between the microcell 6111 (e.g., on LTE Band 7) and the WiFi hotspot 6311. Accordingly, the antenna system of the mobile device is optimized for the B5 and B7 pass bands, but also to provide maximum rejection at the WiFi operating frequency (2400 MHz). To communicate with the WiFi hotspot, the mobile communication device 6101 can be configured to select an antenna for the WiFi hotspot 6311 that can provide isolation with respect another antenna being used for the microcell 6111 at Band 7.
Configuring the antenna system of mobile communication device 6101, which can include a plurality of antennas of different polarities, isolation capabilities and so on, can generally involve multiple variables. Each variable can be associated with a performance measurement, which can be compared with a threshold performance level. The antenna settings of each antenna can be determined from a comparison of all the measured variables with their respective threshold levels. As noted above, performance between antennas with respect to one variable may be deliberately degraded in order to improve performance with respect to a different variable. For example, if base station 6111 is located near mobile communication device 6101 so that communication with base station 6111 has a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the antenna system of mobile communication device 6101 may be optimized for the lowest envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), and secondarily for efficiency. Similarly, a data session at base station 6111 may involve streaming video, while the data session at base station 6311 may involve non-real-time data communications. In this instance, the mobile communication device 1601 can configure the antenna of base station 6111 for better performance than the antenna of base station 6311.
Referring to FIG. 64, it will be appreciated that mobile communication device 6101 may communicate simultaneously with three base stations using different communication protocols. Furthermore, the choice of antenna configuration is based on the particular requirements of the combination of the simultaneous protocols. The antenna settings therefore may not be the same as would be chosen for each communication link taken independently.
In another embodiment 6500 shown schematically in FIG. 65, the mobile communication device 6101 includes a magnetometer, accelerometer and/or gyroscope to determine the orientation of the device. The mobile communication device 6101 can then compare orientation vector N (as well as direction vector D) with vector V to configure the antenna system of the mobile communication device 6101.
In configuring antenna settings for communicating with multiple base stations, mobile communication device 6101 can advantageously include antenna ports that can be isolated (as discussed above with reference to FIGS. 4-5). In embodiment 6600 shown schematically in FIG. 66, antenna structure 6601 includes two antenna elements 6611, 6621 and an electrically conductive connecting element 6613. FIG. 66 illustrates an arrangement with only two antenna ports 6610, 6620; however, the structure can be extended to include more than two ports in accordance with various embodiments of the disclosure. Although the antenna is physically and electrically one structure, its operation can be explained by considering it as two independent antennas. In this arrangement, an antenna mode excited by one antenna port (e.g. 6510) is substantially electrically isolated from another antenna mode excited by the other antenna port (e.g. 6620). The antenna structure 6601 can be configured to cause differential currents and common mode currents flowing through the antenna elements 6611 and 6621 to combine in a manner that increases signal isolation between the two antenna ports 6610 and 6620. Multiple instances of the antenna structure 6601 can be included in the mobile communication device 6101 at different polarities and with tunable resonance frequencies and resonance bandwidths as described by the subject disclosure.
FIG. 67 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a method 6700 that can be applied to the subject disclosure, with reference to FIGS. 61-64. A mobile device can use a GPS system to obtain location and direction information for the mobile device and thereby determines vector D (step 6702). The mobile device can also use a magnetometer, accelerometer and/or gyroscope to obtain orientation information for the mobile device and thereby determining vector N (step 6704). Based on the GPS data, the mobile device can determine a distance and direction to another cell (a microcell in this embodiment), thereby determining vector V (step 6706). If, based on a comparison of vectors D and V, the mobile device will intercept the microcell (step 6708), the mobile device obtains operating parameters for the microcell (step 6710). If communication is to be established with plural cells simultaneously (step 6712), the mobile device can determine the distance and direction to the additional cell(s) and thereby determine vector V2 (step 6714), and obtains their operating parameters (step 6716).
If the communications services to the mobile device are to be handed off from the original cell (in this embodiment, a macrocell) to the new cell, the antenna system of the mobile device can be reconfigured to optimize its performance with respect to the new cell (steps 6718, 6720). If communication with the original cell is to be maintained (that is, not all or any of the communications services to the mobile device are to be handed off, or new communication services are to be initiated on another cell while in communication with the original cell), the antenna system of the mobile device can be reconfigured to adjust its performance for simultaneous communication with more than one cell (steps 6718, 6722). As noted above, configuring the antenna system may involve multiple variables which may require compromising performance between antenna performance metrics, and simultaneous communication may involve a plurality of communications protocols.
In another embodiment, the base station 6110 is part of a network system, and the network system includes a computing device for processing the location, direction and orientation data of the mobile device. FIG. 68 schematically illustrates a network system 6800 in which base stations are coupled to computing devices via either wired or wireless connections including connections via the internet 6801. Base station 6110 is coupled to a base station controller (BSC) 6810. In an embodiment, BSC 6810 includes a processor for analyzing the GPS and orientation data of the mobile device, determining the location of a cell that the mobile device can intercept, and calculating antenna adjustments to recommend to the mobile device. The processor can employ an algorithm to determine an antenna configuration for the mobile device to facilitate a handoff to or initiation of new communication services with the new cell that provides the most efficient network use in combination with maintaining QOS at the mobile device. In other embodiments, these functions can be performed at other devices, such as server 6850 coupled to the BSC or server 6860 accessible to the BSC via the internet. The recommendations for antenna adjustments can be transmitted to the mobile device by base station 6110 to prepare the mobile device for a handoff or initiation of new communication services with the new cell.
FIG. 69 depicts an illustrative embodiment of a communication device 6900. The communication device 6900 can comprise a wireline and/or wireless transceiver 6902 (herein transceiver 6902), a user interface (UI) 6904, a power supply 6914, a location receiver 6916, a motion sensor 6918, an orientation sensor 6920, and a controller 6906 for managing operations thereof. The transceiver 6902 can support short-range or long-range wireless access technologies such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, WiFi, DECT, or cellular communication technologies, just to mention a few. Cellular technologies can include, for example, CDMA-1X, UMTS/HSDPA, GSM/GPRS, TDMA/EDGE, EV/DO, WiMAX, SDR, LTE, as well as other next generation wireless communication technologies as they arise. The transceiver 6902 can also be adapted to support circuit-switched wireline access technologies (such as PSTN), packet-switched wireline access technologies (such as TCP/IP, VoIP, etc.), and combinations thereof. The transceiver 6902 can be adapted to utilize any of the aforementioned adaptive antenna embodiments described above singly or in any combination.
The UI 6904 can include a depressible or touch-sensitive keypad 6908 with a navigation mechanism such as a roller ball, a joystick, a mouse, or a navigation disk for manipulating operations of the communication device 6900. The keypad 6908 can be an integral part of a housing assembly of the communication device 6900 or an independent device operably coupled thereto by a tethered wireline interface (such as a USB cable) or a wireless interface supporting for example Bluetooth. The keypad 6908 can represent a numeric keypad commonly used by phones, and/or a QWERTY keypad with alphanumeric keys. The UI 6904 can further include a display 6910 such as monochrome or color LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or other suitable display technology for conveying images to an end user of the communication device 6900. In an embodiment where the display 6910 is touch-sensitive, a portion or all of the keypad 6908 can be presented by way of the display 6910 with navigation features.
The display 6910 can use touch screen technology to also serve as a user interface for detecting user input. As a touch screen display, the communication device 6900 can be adapted to present a user interface with graphical user interface (GUI) elements that can be selected by a user with a touch of a finger. The touch screen display 6910 can be equipped with capacitive, resistive or other forms of sensing technology to detect how much surface area of a user's finger has been placed on a portion of the touch screen display. This sensing information can be used to control the manipulation of the GUI elements or other functions of the user interface. The display 6910 can be an integral part of the housing assembly of the communication device 6900 or an independent device communicatively coupled thereto by a tethered wireline interface (such as a cable) or a wireless interface.
The UI 6904 can also include an audio system 6912 that utilizes audio technology for conveying low volume audio (such as audio heard in proximity of a human ear) and high volume audio (such as speakerphone for hands free operation). The audio system 6912 can further include a microphone for receiving audible signals of an end user. The audio system 6912 can also be used for voice recognition applications. The UI 6904 can further include an image sensor 6913 such as a charged coupled device (CCD) camera for capturing still or moving images.
The power supply 6914 can utilize common power management technologies such as replaceable and rechargeable batteries, supply regulation technologies, and/or charging system technologies for supplying energy to the components of the communication device 6900 to facilitate long-range or short-range portable applications. Alternatively, or in combination, the charging system can utilize external power sources such as DC power supplied over a physical interface such as a USB port or other suitable tethering technologies.
The location receiver 6916 can utilize location technology such as a global positioning system (GPS) receiver capable of assisted GPS for identifying a location of the communication device 6900 based on signals generated by a constellation of GPS satellites, which can be used for facilitating location services such as navigation. The motion sensor 6918 can utilize motion sensing technology such as an accelerometer, a gyroscope, or other suitable motion sensing technology to detect motion of the communication device 6900 in three-dimensional space. The orientation sensor 6920 can utilize orientation sensing technology such as a magnetometer to detect the orientation of the communication device 6900 (north, south, west, and east, as well as combined orientations in degrees, minutes, or other suitable orientation metrics).
The communication device 6900 can use the transceiver 6902 to also determine a proximity to a cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, or other wireless access points by sensing techniques such as utilizing a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and/or signal time of arrival (TOA) or time of flight (TOF) measurements. The controller 6906 can utilize computing technologies such as a microprocessor, a digital signal processor (DSP), programmable gate arrays, application specific integrated circuits, and/or a video processor with associated storage memory such as Flash, ROM, RAM, SRAM, DRAM or other storage technologies for executing computer instructions, controlling, and processing data supplied by the aforementioned components of the communication device 6900.
Other components not shown in FIG. 69 can be used in one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure. For instance, the communication device 6900 can include a reset button (not shown). The reset button can be used to reset the controller 6906 of the communication device 6900. In yet another embodiment, the communication device 6900 can also include a factory default setting button positioned, for example, below a small hole in a housing assembly of the communication device 6900 to force the communication device 6900 to re-establish factory settings. In this embodiment, a user can use a protruding object such as a pen or paper clip tip to reach into the hole and depress the default setting button. The communication device 6900 can also include a slot for adding or removing an identity module such as a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card. SIM cards can be used for identifying subscriber services, executing programs, storing subscriber data, and so forth.
The communication device 6900 as described herein can operate with more or less of the circuit components shown in FIG. 69. These variant embodiments can be used in one or more embodiments of the subject disclosure.
It should be understood that devices described in the exemplary embodiments can be in communication with each other via various wireless and/or wired methodologies. The methodologies can be links that are described as coupled, connected and so forth, which can include unidirectional and/or bidirectional communication over wireless paths and/or wired paths that utilize one or more of various protocols or methodologies, where the coupling and/or connection can be direct (e.g., no intervening processing device) and/or indirect (e.g., an intermediary processing device such as a router).
FIG. 70 depicts an exemplary diagrammatic representation of a machine in the form of a computer system 7000 within which a set of instructions, when executed, may cause the machine to perform any one or more of the embodiments described above. One or more instances of the machine can utilize the aforementioned adaptive antenna embodiments singly or in any combination. In some embodiments, the machine may be connected (e.g., using a network 7026) to other machines. In a networked deployment, the machine may operate in the capacity of a server or a client user machine in server-client user network environment, or as a peer machine in a peer-to-peer (or distributed) network environment.
The machine may comprise a server computer, a client user computer, a personal computer (PC), a tablet PC, a smart phone, a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a control system, a network router, switch or bridge, or any machine capable of executing a set of instructions (sequential or otherwise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine. It will be understood that a communication device of the subject disclosure includes broadly any electronic device that provides voice, video or data communication. Further, while a single machine is illustrated, the term “machine” shall also be taken to include any collection of machines that individually or jointly execute a set (or multiple sets) of instructions to perform any one or more of the methods discussed herein.
The computer system 7000 may include a processor (or controller) 7002 (e.g., a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU, or both), a main memory 7004 and a static memory 7006, which communicate with each other via a bus 7008. The computer system 7000 may further include a display unit 7010 (e.g., a liquid crystal display (LCD), a flat panel, or a solid state display. The computer system 7000 may include an input device 7012 (e.g., a keyboard), a cursor control device 7014 (e.g., a mouse), a disk drive unit 7016, a signal generation device 7018 (e.g., a speaker or remote control) and a network interface device 7020. In distributed environments, the embodiments described in the subject disclosure can be adapted to utilize multiple display units 7010 controlled by two or more computer systems 7000. In this configuration, presentations described by the subject disclosure may in part be shown in a first of the display units 7010, while the remaining portion is presented in a second of the display units 7010.
The disk drive unit 7016 may include a tangible computer-readable storage medium 7022 on which is stored one or more sets of instructions (e.g., software 7024) embodying any one or more of the methods or functions described herein, including those methods illustrated above. The instructions 7024 may also reside, completely or at least partially, within the main memory 7004, the static memory 7006, and/or within the processor 7002 during execution thereof by the computer system 7000. The main memory 7004 and the processor 7002 also may constitute tangible computer-readable storage media.
Dedicated hardware implementations including, but not limited to, application specific integrated circuits, programmable logic arrays and other hardware devices that can likewise be constructed to implement the methods described herein. Application specific integrated circuits and programmable logic array can use downloadable instructions for executing state machines and/or circuit configurations to implement embodiments of the subject disclosure. Applications that may include the apparatus and systems of various embodiments broadly include a variety of electronic and computer systems. Some embodiments implement functions in two or more specific interconnected hardware modules or devices with related control and data signals communicated between and through the modules, or as portions of an application-specific integrated circuit. Thus, the example system is applicable to software, firmware, and hardware implementations.
In accordance with various embodiments of the subject disclosure, the operations or methods described herein are intended for operation as software programs or instructions running on or executed by a computer processor or other computing device, and which may include other forms of instructions manifested as a state machine implemented with logic components in an application specific integrated circuit or field programmable gate array. Furthermore, software implementations (e.g., software programs, instructions, etc.) including, but not limited to, distributed processing or component/object distributed processing, parallel processing, or virtual machine processing can also be constructed to implement the methods described herein. It is further noted that a computing device such as a processor, a controller, a state machine or other suitable device for executing instructions to perform operations or methods may perform such operations directly or indirectly by way of one or more intermediate devices directed by the computing device.
While the tangible computer-readable storage medium 7022 is shown in an example embodiment to be a single medium, the term “tangible computer-readable storage medium” should be taken to include a single medium or multiple media (e.g., a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers) that store the one or more sets of instructions. The term “tangible computer-readable storage medium” shall also be taken to include any non-transitory medium that is capable of storing or encoding a set of instructions for execution by the machine and that cause the machine to perform any one or more of the methods of the subject disclosure.
The term “tangible computer-readable storage medium” shall accordingly be taken to include, but not be limited to: solid-state memories such as a memory card or other package that houses one or more read-only (non-volatile) memories, random access memories, or other re-writable (volatile) memories, a magneto-optical or optical medium such as a disk or tape, or other tangible media which can be used to store information. Accordingly, the disclosure is considered to include any one or more of a tangible computer-readable storage medium, as listed herein and including art-recognized equivalents and successor media, in which the software implementations herein are stored.
Although the present specification describes components and functions implemented in the embodiments with reference to particular standards and protocols, the disclosure is not limited to such standards and protocols. Each of the standards for Internet and other packet switched network transmission (e.g., TCP/IP, UDP/IP, HTML, HTTP) represent examples of the state of the art. Such standards are from time-to-time superseded by faster or more efficient equivalents having essentially the same functions. Wireless standards for device detection (e.g., RFID), short-range communications (e.g., Bluetooth, WiFi, Zigbee), and long-range communications (e.g., WiMAX, GSM, CDMA, LTE) can be used by computer system 7000.
The illustrations of embodiments described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of various embodiments, and they are not intended to serve as a complete description of all the elements and features of apparatus and systems that might make use of the structures described herein. Many other embodiments will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reviewing the above description. The exemplary embodiments can include combinations of features and/or steps from multiple embodiments. Other embodiments may be utilized and derived therefrom, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of this disclosure. Figures are also merely representational and may not be drawn to scale. Certain proportions thereof may be exaggerated, while others may be minimized. Accordingly, the specification and drawings are to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense.
Although specific embodiments have been illustrated and described herein, it should be appreciated that any arrangement calculated to achieve the same purpose may be substituted for the specific embodiments shown. This disclosure is intended to cover any and all adaptations or variations of various embodiments. Combinations of the above embodiments, and other embodiments not specifically described herein, can be used in the subject disclosure.
The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in a single embodiment for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in less than all features of a single disclosed embodiment. Thus the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separately claimed subject matter.
It is to be understood that although the disclosure has been described above in terms of particular embodiments, the foregoing embodiments are provided as illustrative only, and do not limit or define the scope of the disclosure.
Various other embodiments, including but not limited to the following, are also within the scope of the claims. For example, the elements or components of the various multimode antenna structures described herein may be further divided into additional components or joined together to form fewer components for performing the same functions. For example, the antenna elements and the connecting element or elements that are part of a multimode antenna structure may be combined to form a single radiating structure having multiple feed points operatively coupled to a plurality of antenna ports or feed points.
It is further noted that the low band and high band antennae structures described in the subject disclosure may be different or dissimilar antenna types, such as, for example, monopole, PIFA, loop, dielectric or other structures known in the art. It is also noted that the embodiments described herein may represent other sub-frequency ranges such as, for example, low band, mid band, and high band. Accordingly, the antenna structures described herein may have differing antenna types, and differing frequency ranges.
Having described embodiments of the present disclosure, it should be apparent that modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure.


1. A method, comprising:
obtaining, by a communication device comprising a processor in communication with a first base station, location information associated with a second base station having a service area, wherein the communication device is a mobile device having a direction of travel;
determining, by the communication device, a first vector based on the location information of the second base station, wherein the first vector is directed from a location of the communication device to an edge of the service area of the second base station;
determining, by the communication device, a second vector corresponding to the direction of travel of the communication device; and
adjusting, by the communication device, an antenna configuration of the communication device based on the first vector, the second vector or both, to facilitate a transition of communications services provided to the communication device by the first base station to the second base station.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
maintaining simultaneous communication with the first base station and the second base station subsequent to the transition of communication services,
wherein communication with the first base station is at a first operating frequency corresponding to a first antenna mode of the communication device and communication with the second base station is at a second operating frequency corresponding to a second antenna mode of the communication device,
wherein the antenna configuration comprises a first antenna and a second antenna,
wherein the first antenna is operating at the first operating frequency, and wherein the second antenna is operating at the second operating frequency, and wherein the first antenna is decorrelated from the second antenna.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the antenna configuration comprises an antenna, and wherein the adjusting comprises tuning an operating frequency of the antenna, configuring a polarization of the antenna, reconfiguring an electrical length of the antenna, tuning a bandwidth of the antenna, tuning a directivity of the antenna, or any combination thereof.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the adjusting further comprises adjusting a directivity of the antenna based on an orientation of the communication device.
5. The method of claim 2, wherein the communication device enables voice communication in a first operating mode including the first antenna mode and enables data communication in a second operating mode including the second antenna mode.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the adjusting of the antenna configuration improves a first antenna performance metric above a first threshold for the first operating mode and improves a second antenna performance metric above a second threshold for the second operating mode, wherein the first threshold and the second threshold are less than an optimal performance of the first antenna performance metric and the second antenna performance metric.
7. The method of claim 6, further comprising:
transmitting to the communication device location information associated with a third base station having a third operating frequency,
wherein the third operating frequency corresponds to a third operating mode of the communication device,
wherein the communication device enables shared data communication between the second operating mode and the third operating mode, and
wherein the adjusting further comprises adjusting the antenna configuration to improve a third antenna performance metric above a third threshold for the third operating mode, and wherein the first threshold, the second threshold and the third threshold are less than the optimal performance of the first antenna performance metric, the second antenna performance metric, and the third antenna performance metric.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising obtaining static properties of the second base station, wherein the static properties comprise an operating frequency of the second base station and a control channel frequency associated with the second base station, and wherein the adjusting further comprises adjusting the antenna configuration in accordance with the static properties.
9. The method of claim 8, further comprising querying the first base station to provide the static properties of the second base station.
10. The method of claim 8, wherein the communication device includes a storage device for storing a lookup table including the static properties of the second base station, and wherein the obtaining the static properties further comprises accessing the lookup table.
11. A method, comprising:
obtaining, by a first base station comprising a processor, information regarding a direction of travel of a communication device;
determining, by the first base station, a location of the communication device relative to a second base station, wherein the first base station and the second base station have different locations;
transmitting, by the first base station, a recommendation to the communication device regarding adjusting an antenna configuration of the communication device to facilitate data communication services with the second base station while maintaining voice or data communications services with the first base station.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the adjusting of the antenna configuration comprises one of tuning an operating frequency of an antenna, configuring a polarization of the antenna, reconfiguring an electrical length of the antenna, tuning a bandwidth of the antenna, tuning a directivity of the antenna, or any combination thereof.
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the adjusting of the antenna configuration further comprises adjusting a directivity of the antenna based on an orientation of the communication device.
14. The method of claim 11, wherein the antenna configuration enables communication services with the first base station at a first operating frequency and the second base station at a second operating frequency, and wherein the adjusting further comprises adjusting the antenna configuration to increase isolation between a first feed of a first antenna operating at the frequency of the first base station and a second feed of a second antenna operating at the frequency of the second base station.
15. The method of claim 11, wherein the first base station comprises a macrocell and the second base station comprises a microcell.
16. The method of claim 11, further comprising transmitting static properties of the second base station to the communication device in response to a query from the communication device.
17. An antenna structure of a first base station, comprising:
an antenna element for communicating with a communication device via radio frequency signals, wherein the communication device is a mobile device having a direction of travel; and
a circuit coupled to the antenna element, wherein the circuit performs operations comprising:
obtaining information regarding the direction of travel of the communication device;
obtaining information regarding an orientation of the communication device;
determining a location of the communication device relative to a second base station, wherein the first base station and the second base station have different locations;
transmitting antenna configuration instructions to the communication device enabling the communication device to adjust an antenna configuration to facilitate communication services with the second base station.
18. The antenna structure of claim 17, wherein the adjusting of the antenna configuration comprises one of tuning an operating frequency of an antenna of the communication device, configuring a polarization of the antenna, reconfiguring an electrical length of the antenna, tuning a bandwidth of the antenna, tuning a directivity of the antenna, or any combination thereof.
19. The antenna structure of claim 17, wherein the operations further comprise transmitting to the communication device second location information associated with the second base station enabling the communication device to further adjust the antenna configuration for initiating communication services with the second base station.
20. The antenna structure of claim 19, wherein the operations further comprise maintaining communications with the communication device subsequent to the communication device establishing communications with the second base station, wherein the antenna configuration of the communication device enables communication services with the first base station at a first operating frequency and the second base station at a second operating frequency, and wherein the antenna configuration instructions enable the communication device to adjust the antenna configuration to increase isolation between a first feed of a first antenna operating at the frequency of the first base station and a second feed of a second antenna operating at the frequency of the second base station.

 

 

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a base station system includes a base station device , a wireless transmission device and a data transfer device , each of which can be installed outdoors. enclosures of the devices each provide a degree of protection from water and dust ingress necessary for being installed outdoors. the enclosure of the base station device accommodates electronic equipment functioning as a base station. the enclosure of the wireless transmission device accommodates electronic equipment functioning as a radio station to perform wireless transmission with the other device for connecting the base station device to a mobile backhaul network. the enclosure of the data transfer device accommodates electronic equipment functioning as a router or a switch to transfer data packets or data flames between the base station device and the wireless transmission device . this eliminates the need for construction of a building/shelter to install the base station system.
a system for emulating a mobile communication device comprising a first mobile communication device comprising a processor; a memory; an application stored in the memory that is operable to emulate an identity of a second mobile communication device; a transceiver configured to communicatively couple to the second mobile communication device and further configured to present the identity of the second mobile communication device to a wireless communication network; a temporary memory configured to store the identity of the second mobile communication device while the first mobile communication device is communicatively coupled to the second mobile communication device; a long-range antenna; and a short-range antenna.
base station and user equipment apparatuses for configuring a random access channel , and methods thereof, are provided. the method for a bs to configure a rach includes generating configuration information on rach resources, transmitting the configuration information on the rach resources to a ue, receiving a random access preamble multiplexed on a plurality of continuous rach resources from the ue, extracting the random access preamble multiplexed on the plurality of continuous rach resources, and detecting the extracted random access preamble. the method for a ue to configure a rach includes receiving configuration information on rach resources from a bs, selecting occupied rach resources among a plurality of continuous rach resources, generating a random access preamble, multiplexing the generated random access preamble on the selected rach resources, and transmitting the random access preamble on the selected rach resources to the bs.
an invention relates to methods for transmitting a buffer status report in a mobile communication system, more particularly to the definition of rules for triggering, generating and transmitting bsrs. the invention also relates to a data transmission method utilizing new rules to decide data of which radio bearers is transmitted within a given transmission time interval. moreover, the invention relates to scheduling method for radio resources that is taking into account additional scheduling-relevant information from the buffer status reporting and/or data transmission method. to avoid unnecessary grants from the network and to suggest an advanced handling of data transmissions the invention suggests a buffer status reporting and data transmission schemes that take into account the scheduling mode of data of radio bearers pending for transmission to decide whether to report on it in a buffer status report, respectively, whether to multiplex the data to a transport block for transmission.
the present invention is designed to make effective use of radio resources in vsec to output a plurality of beams of varying tilt angles for sectorization in vertical directions. a radio communication method for a radio base station that outputs a plurality of beams of varying tilt angles and forms a plurality of cells that are sectorized vertically, and a user terminal that establishes wireless connection with the radio base station, provides the steps in which the radio base station acquires information about the communication capacity of each of the plurality of cells, and controls the vertical plane beam width and/or transmission power of each cell and sets the coverage area of each cell so that differences in communication capacity between the plurality of cells are reduced.
an information format and apparatus used by a base station to make a scheduling decision when the base station allocates resource to a terminal in a mobile communication system are provided. operations of a terminal to report a maximum transmission power accurately to the base station in a scheduling process are also provided. a method for calculating a maximum transmit power in a constant manner regardless of a channel status is also provided.
a method manages the state of a plurality of micro base stations inside a mobile communication network. the network comprises at least a macro cell containing at least one tracking area covering a plurality of micro cells each one associated with a micro base station. the method to manage the states of micro cells comprises the steps of: switching on of all the micro base stations contained in said tracking area of the macro cell, counting of the messages of paging to determine the number of portable devices in idle mode inside said tracking area, and switching off at least one micro base station in the tracking area when the number of portable devices in idle mode in the said tracking area is lower than a first determined value. according to an improvement, the switching on of all the micro base stations contained in a tracking area is triggered when the current load of the macro cell exceeds a second determined value.
briefly, in accordance with one of more embodiments, a fixed device synchronizes with a downlink channel of a network, acquires a master information block including a last system update time; and executes cell selection without acquiring other system information if the last system update time is before the last system access time. furthermore, the fixed device may listen only for system information block messages that it needs, and ignore other system information blocks. a bitmap may indicate which system information block messages should be listed to for fixed devices, and which may be ignored. in some embodiments, one or more system information blocks may be designated for fixed devices.
wireless network data router for a vehicle, and operating method thereof, comprising: a multi-connection interface for wireless access in vehicular environments, herewith wave; a wireless local area network, herewith wi-fi, interface; a mobile network data interface; a downlink data connection for the vehicle and/or users in the vehicle and its vicinity; a data processing unit for routing data between said interfaces; wherein the data processing unit is configured to: calculate a score for each reachable network on the wave, wi-fi and mobile network interfaces; switch the uplink connection of the wireless network data router to the reachable network with the best score. also a wireless network data router for vehicles for connecting vehicles to the internet through a multi-network device, said router being a mobile router suitable to form a mesh network of connected vehicles, wherein the router is arranged for using parked cars for redistributing wi-fi signal from fixed hotspots.
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